Organizations seek to foster productive employees; however, employees disengage from their work for a variety of reasons. Employees may exhibit a lack of organizational commitment as directly related to their level of job satisfaction or it may be a result of work-job conflicts. However, regardless of the genesis of the issue, a lack of engagement on behalf of an employee is typically displayed via withdrawal behaviors. Withdrawal behaviors occur when an employee disengages from an organization either psychologically or physically (Redmond, 2009). Withdrawal behaviors can take on many forms and can be costly and detrimental to the success of a company (Eder & Eisenberger, 2008).
Physical Withdrawal Behaviors
- Lateness: Excessive tardiness can be a physical sign that an employee has disengaged from the company.
- Absenteeism: Absenteeism is a withdrawal behavior exhibited when an employee fails to report to work, typically for an extended period of time or for an excessive amount of days (Cohen & Golan, 2007).
- Turnover: This occurs when an employee leaves an organization voluntarily (Rosse, 1988). Voluntarily turnover frequently follows both lateness and absenteeism (Rosse, 1988).
Psychological Withdrawal Behaviors
Withdrawal behaviors can be less visible when taking on a psychological process.
- Presenteeism: Presenteeism occurs when an employee shows up for work but works in a limited capacity (Trotter et al, 2009). This can occur due to physical impairment, such as being sick with a cold, or due to mental or psychological strain (Trotter et al, 2009). Withdrawal behavior is concerned primarily with presenteeism due to psychological reasons. An employee might sit at their desk and stare off into space or spend increased time leisurely surfing the internet instead of accomplishing work tasks. Decreased productivity due to presenteeism is more difficult to identify and measure then absenteeism (Trotter et al, 2009).
- Burnout: Burnout can develop when emotional or other stressors become unbearable. Burnout is psychological withdrawal and occurs when an employee has exhausted all their personal mental and physical resources for the job.
Evaluating each of these physical and psychological withdrawal behaviors is beneficial for both the organization of its employees. Companies benefit from the predictive modeling capabilities that arise from monitoring these behaviors. Companies can implement policies, procedures, job structures, and work cultures aimed at reducing disengagement and withdrawal behaviors. Employees benefit from the personal awareness gained through recognizing that seemingly innocent behaviors or actions can become detrimental to organizations and personal career growth.
Lateness or tardiness occurs when an employee fails to report to work at the appointed time. Lateness can occasionally be expected due to in climate weather or unusually bad traffic conditions; however, it is important to distinguish between types of lateness in order to identify lateness that typifies withdrawal behaviors. Blau (1994) identified three specific types of lateness behavior categorized by pattern, frequency, and duration: increasing chronic lateness, stable periodic lateness, and unavoidable lateness. The following table explains each type of lateness as described by Blau (1994):
The frequency and duration of unavoidable lateness is labeled immeasurable due to the random pattern of lateness- it is difficult to measure and compare frequency and duration of a random event (Blau, 1994).
Reasons for Lateness
Sometimes there are legitimate reasons for an employee’s tardiness; however, no matter what type of lateness behavior an employee is engaging in they will most likely still provide similar excuses on the surface: such as traffic, accidents, transportation issues, etc. Yet, there are underlying reasons why employees are late based upon the type of lateness behavior they are exhibiting.
- Unavoidable Lateness: Transportation concerns are a primary cause of unavoidable lateness; however, personal illness and accidents also can create unavoidable lateness (Blau, 1994). Other possible causes include inclement weather, or traffic accidents.
- Stable Periodic Lateness: This type of lateness is due to higher leisure-income trade off as well as work and family conflict (Blau, 1994). Employees exhibiting this type of lateness are not unhappy with their job, they simply have other things they consider more important than arriving on time all of the time (Blau, 1994). For example, an employee with high job satisfaction and with young children might experience work-family conflict. The employee values their job; however, they also consider it important that their children have enough sleep and enough time to eat a healthy breakfast before school. So, instead of being on time to work, they first ensure their children’s needs are taken care of.
- Increasing Chronic Lateness: Lower job satisfaction, lower job involvement, and lower organizational commitment can all lead to increased chronic lateness (Blau, 1994). Chronic lateness by staff can become detrimental and costly to an organization.
A significant negative relationship has been found between job satisfaction and lateness (Adler & Golan, 1981). An employee experiencing low job satisfaction is more likely to arrive at work late. The employee simply disengages and thinks of the job as a paycheck source alone, versus a valued career.
Employees who are never late have higher job satisfaction, stronger organizational commitment, and higher job involvement (Blau, 1994)). An employee who finds their work stimulating or challenging is less likely to engage in lateness as a withdrawal behavior (Adler & Golan, 1981). Conversely, viewing work as tedious or repetitive by an employee will cause disengagement to occur and the employee will be increasingly tardy to work.
Results of Lateness
Significant instances of tardiness by staff costs employers both in terms of lost productivity and lost revenue. In the United States an excess of $3 billion per year is lost in productivity because of employees being late (DeLonzor, 2005). Studies report that if an employee is late ten minutes each day, for a whole year, they are costing the company the equivalent time of one week vacation time (DeLonzor, 2005).
Lateness costs organizations money through the loss of time and productivity when an employee is late, the time that supervisors must spend on reprimands and dealing with tardiness, and the negative impact a tardy employee has on other employees (Cascio, 1987). One employee's lateness can have a trickledown effect on co-workers who believe they too can get away with lateness because it goes un-noticed with no corrective action taking place (Redmond, 2009).
Resolution for Lateness
There are many steps an organization's leadership can take in resolving excessive tardiness problems. One suggestion in the Small Business Review (2009) is that management immediately addresses the issue via “a heart-to-heart conversation" (Stern, 2009). In this conversation, the manager and employee can discuss why lateness is a problem and the reasons behind the employee’s lateness, then work together to find a resolution (Stem, 2009).
It is beneficial for leadership to determine the true type of lateness behavior and the corresponding causes. Managers at all levels should monitor lateness in accordance with company policy and learn to recognize any changes in the pattern, frequency, or duration of lateness (Blau, 1994). This way, supervisors can distinguish between unavoidable lateness and increasing chronic lateness. In the event of stable periodic lateness or increasing chronic lateness the employer and employee can work together in finding a mutually agreeable solution.
While there are many reasons that an employee might be absent from work, absenteeism is when an individual misses an extended amount of time from work (typically, at least a day) that is not excused (e.g. medical reasons or vacation) (Redmond, 2009). Considering the definition of absenteeism in broader terms can include "the failure to report for scheduled work" (Darr & Johns, 2008). Law, in the case of vacations and medical leave, requires some absence, which fall into the category of planned absences. Unplanned absences can have a greater impact on an organization's productivity and companies consider them more costly.
Measures of Absence
Although there have been over 41 different measures of absence used in organizational research, it is suggested that frequency and time-lost are the most commonly used due to their relative conceptual and operational clarity (Leonard & Dolan, 1990). The measure of time lost absence is thought to capture involuntary absences, as longer absences result from factors beyond a person’s control, such as illness or family problems (Darr & Johns, 2008). Under the measure of frequency absence, the thought is that these are voluntary absences and occur due to factors within a person’s control because they are shorter durations of absence (Darr & Johns, 2008).
Causes of Absenteeism
Just as many would assume that a happy worker is a productive worker, many might also assume that a dissatisfied worker is more likely to be an absent worker. However, "several meta-analyses have found that job satisfaction only accounts for 5% of absenteeism" (Pinder, 2008). In another study of job satisfaction and absenteeism, researchers found that "in the great majority of cases (211 out of a total of 240 correlations) there was no significant relationship of any kind between absence and satisfaction (Nicholson, Brown & Chadwick-Jones, 1976). This study covered a breadth of workers, both blue and white collar in manufacturing and service industries alike. The conclusions of the researchers were the same across professions.
Darr & Johns have conducted meta-analyses that suggest that work strain appears to be the larger cause of absence from work. More specifically, these researchers found that physical and psychological illness, resulting from work strain, was a significant reason for absence from work.
In determining whether work strain directly causes absence, Darr and Johns examined data according to three models as shown below:
(Darr & Johns 2008)
Darr & Johns' (2008) study concludes, "The total indirect effect exceeded the direct effect of work strain on absence,” which supports the mediating role of illness as the cause of individuals' absenteeism. This does not mean that employees do not miss work as a direct effect of work strain, but there is more support for work strain causing illness, which then causes absence from work.
All employees eventually leave a company whether it is voluntarily or involuntarily, and a company views these turnovers in a positive or negative manner dependent on the impact to the company at that time. An employee may voluntarily leave the company because he/she is leaving the workforce entirely or because he/she accepted a position with a different company. An employer may force the employee to leave the company for a variety of reasons including layoffs and poor job performance. Employee turnover can create positive effects for the company such as creating costs savings when a senior employee making top pay leaves and the company hires a less-experienced employee for less money. However, not all situations in employee turnover result in a positive impact for the company. If a company has to spend a lot of money and time in training and development of a new employee to maintain its critical operations, then an employee leaving can create a negative impact.
Whatever factor contributes to the turnover for a company, there typically is a cost involved. These costs will vary dependent on the costs of temporarily filling the vacancy, recruiting expenses, and training expenses. There is also a cost factor when considering the time a position is vacant and the time taken in getting a new employee working at full productivity. It is important to remember, however, that even though there are significant costs related to employee turnover, there are positive attributes to such expenses. In order for a company to run at top performance, there is a necessity in retaining the best employees and replacing the poor performers.
Even the fast food chain, McDonald’s, realizes the importance of retaining its employees in order to increase sales and lower recruitment and training costs. The company experiences as much as 20% managerial turnover and the crewmember turnover rate is 80%-90% (Gibson, 2008). These turnover rates cost the company in time and money because of recruitment and retraining expenditures. The company now interviews carefully to determine job goals and commitment needs and desires of potential employees in hopes of reducing job turnover. It also offers job benefits such as affordable health care to gain appeal in qualified applicants in remaining with the company for longer periods at a time. This is a very different approach compared to McDonald’s approach in the early 1970s and 1980s when they intentionally created high employee turnover through low wages and no benefits, otherwise known as McDonaldization (Redmond, 2009). The company once saw this approach as a profit building approach because its entry-level positions required little to no training, and the company kept labor costs down. The theory worked until the job market did not meet the very high demands of frequent employee turnover at the company and its need for more applicants. Once a company understands the necessity of retaining its employees, it needs a structure and plan that effectively reduces turnover, which means analyzing the causes of its high turnover.
The Causes for Employee Turnover
There are many causes for turnover, but most reasons do fall into the categories of either voluntary or involuntary. Most people choose to leave at least one job within their lifetime for reasons of improving their everyday living such as opportunities for better pay, higher career satisfaction, mobility caused by marriage, etc. Almost everybody in the workforce also hopes to leave one’s job in order to retire as well. There can also be negative reasons for voluntary turnover caused by medical issues for an employee or a family member that needs increased care. Of course, the other aspect for employee turnover involves the involuntary choice in leaving a job. A company may release an employee for financial reasons or even worse, the employee did not perform to the expected standards of the company.
Most companies want to avoid high employee turnover in order to save money in recruiting and training as well as to maintain full capacity for potential sales and profit. Therefore, it is important for a company to investigate and understand the reasons an employee leaves voluntarily. There are some factors that a company cannot control or reduce turnover from, such as retirement and medical issues. However, there are some reasons that companies need to understand with regard to high voluntary turnover, so that the company can modify practices in reducing employee turnover. One example comes from job dissatisfaction.
William Mobley (1977) created a model that included seven potential steps an employee goes through in job dissatisfaction that may eventually lead to eventual job turnover. Not all employees suffering from job dissatisfaction go through each step listed in the chart below, and employees may experience withdrawal from their work in other ways less extreme, such as developing negative behaviors including increased tardiness and absenteeism.
The Positive Effects of Employee Turnover
One of the positive effects in employee turnover is the fact that it can save the company money. As mentioned earlier, McDonalds at one time found high turnover as a way to increase profits because of little or no need in job training. The high volume of available workers in comparison to the demand of jobs allowed them to pay low wages without rewarding employees with raises. High turnover, however, is not an effective company tactic for highly skilled jobs requiring long-term experience and highly skilled employees.
Companies will also view turnover positively when it provides the opportunity to remove ineffective or troublesome employees. Sometimes employees simply do not perform as well as others or cause severe conflict among all the employees. When companies are able to remove these types of employees voluntarily or involuntarily, it provides an opportunity for the company to hire a new employee that can work effectively and remove poor working relationships among co-workers causing conflict and disturbing the work flow. Replacing older employees that retire can promote positive change for a company’s workforce because it enables them to hire younger employees with newer skill sets and fresh perspectives that may enhance company processes and effectiveness.
The Negative Effects of Employee Turnover
Losing an employee that is productive and vital in maintaining structure and smooth workflow can be very detrimental for a company. As discussed earlier, it can be quite costly due to recruiting costs, lost productivity, and training costs and time. Highly skilled employees hired by other companies may also take valuable information obtained from years of experience from the previous employer to the new one. Motivation of other employees may also suffer because of the transition of losing a good manager or supervisor and learning to work with a new one. Having a poor manager that the employees distrust or cause lack of motivation can lead to higher turnover rates among the workers supervised by the poor manager, causing even more lost production, time, and money. Companies also realize the negative impact in losing their highly skilled employees because finding replacements is not always easy and can be very competitive among various companies in gaining the qualified applicant.
Many attribute Herbert Freudenberger with coining the phrase "Job Burnout." The most precise way to describe burnout is Job Depression. Burnout is a suffering of the spirit, which results in damaging or destroying motivation. It is not however, an all or nothing situation. On any particular day, an employee’s enthusiasm for his/her work may increase or decrease but it does not remain the same. People do not usually have an unending amount of enthusiasm for their work. Even the hottest fires will run out of fuel and it does not matter how much we fan the flames because when the wood is gone, the fire extinguishes. Our jobs are no different and when motivation wanes, we will burnout (Potter, 2005).
Who is Susceptible
The people who are most inclined to suffer from burnout are caretakers. They easily become cynical about the work they do because their work can be seemingly unending. Caregivers responsible for their loved one will actually start to become hostile toward their charges or take their frustration out on others who are close to them. Other occupations that have a high frequency of suffering from burnout include the following:
- Physicians and others whom make life and death decisions
- Politicians and those who must work under public scrutiny
- Managers and team leaders
However, this condition can affect anyone doing anything if the conditions are right (Potter, 2005).
Symptoms of Burnout
Symptom of burnout most of the time manifest as depression, dissatisfaction, anxiety, anger, and frustration. Generally, people will complain of experiencing symptoms of the chronic flu. They also experience exhaustion and increased health problems including headaches, which require leaving work early. Many even develop a fear of going to work. While no two people will experience burnout in the same way, the physical symptoms that usually accompany the mental symptoms of depression and despair will affect most. Sometimes in severe cases, burnout can affect people’s lives outside of work as well, resulting in relationship problems and substance abuse. In general, people will develop a "why bother" attitude (Potter, 2005).
Causes of Burnout
Burnout happens a little differently than some of the other withdrawal behaviors. Burnout relates more to the stress that develops over time. Someone can still love their work, and develop burnout. As mentioned earlier caregivers are particularly susceptible to this condition. Caregivers usually do not get the rewards and overt recognition for their work, and if they are not watchful and take care of their own needs then they will eventually suffer burnout (Redmond, 2009). In this case, they are both employee and employer and one facet must take care of the needs of the other. Just as we have come to understand motivation and what fuels the fire within us, we can use this understanding to understand the causes of burnout. Motivation is the result of rewards, autonomy, and feeling that our work is appreciated by those whom we work with most closely. Being a part of a group or team that develops group cohesiveness over time spent working closely on important projects can also motivate people. Motivation can also occur by the goals and responsibilities that the company or supervisor sets for an employee as well as the goals established by the employee (Redmond, 2009).
Just as all those things listed above contribute to motivation, a lack of them lead to burnout. Furthermore, a vicious cycle can sometimes cause the employee to feel desperate enough to quit one job and seek another. This process, however, does not solve the problem if the employee does not recognize the problem from the first job and can lead to increased burnout.
Dealing with Burnout: The "Three R" Approach
It is important to be aware of the symptoms and signs of burnout so that they may be dealt with before a serious situation arises.
- Recognize – Watch for the warning signs of burnout
- Reverse – Undo the damage by managing stress and seeking support
- Resilience – Build your resilience to stress by taking care of your physical and emotional health
(Smith, Jaffe-Gill, Segal, J. & Segal, R. 2008)
Recovering from Burnout: Acknowledge your Losses
"Burnout brings with it many losses, which can often go unrecognized. Unrecognized losses trap a lot of your energy. It takes a tremendous amount of emotional control to keep oneself from feeling the pain of these losses. When you recognize these losses and allow yourself to grieve them, you release that trapped energy and open yourself to healing" (Luban, 2005).
Recovering from burnout is like recovering from other illnesses. When recovering from a cold, one should get plenty of rest and fluids and take it easy for a while. Employees should use the same approach when recovering from a case of burnout. While recovering, it is important to replenish these losses in order to feel revitalized, in the same way replenishment occurs after a physical illness. Co-workers and friends can help through support in restoring some of these losses. Others will require a change of pace, a vacation, or just some time to recharge batteries in whatever way serves best at the time. Listed below are some of the results from burnout illnesses:
- Loss of the idealism or dream with which you entered your career
- Loss of the role or identity that originally came with your job
- Loss of physical and emotional energy
- Loss of friends, fun, and sense of community
- Loss of esteem, self-worth, and sense of control and mastery
- Loss of joy, meaning and purpose that make work – and life – worthwhile
There is no quick fix, but recovery from burnout is possible by allowing changes and time. Keeping an open mind and considering all your options is vital. Employees should never sacrifice health because of the demands of any one job.
Research on Lateness, Absenteeism, Turnover and Burnout
Withdrawal behaviors are clearly detrimental to organizations. Thus, research into the causation and resolution of withdrawal behaviors are crucial to predictive modeling of behavior and for organizations to take steps to modify behavior of their employee population. Several studies have examined the potential antecedents to various withdrawal behaviors.
Rosse (1988) worked on determining if there was a progressive relationship among withdrawal behaviors: lateness, absenteeism, and turnover. The study followed newly hired full-time hospital employees over a seven month period (Rosse, 1988). Before considering the results of the study it is important to understand how Rosse (1988) defined lateness and absenteeism. Lateness was measured as being more than ten minutes late for a shift, while an absence was measured as any unanticipated absence (Rosse, 1988). Data was collected per week (Rosse, 1988).
The results of this study found a progressive relationship from lateness to absence, and from absence to turnover; however, only multiple absences led to turnover (not single absences) (Rosse, 1988). Additionally, a weaker progressive relationship was found directly between lateness and turnover (Rosse, 1988). Due to the difference between single and multiple absences, Rosse (1988) evaluated whether a single absence or single tardy would lead to subsequently increasing absences or lateness, respectively. Rosse (1988) found that lateness did lead to increasing subsequent episodes of lateness and an absence also did lead to increasing subsequent absences. The major weakness of this study is that while it identified a progression from lateness to absenteeism to turnover, it did not identify or suggest reasons for the progression (Rosse, 1988). Rosse (1988) suggested possibilities for the progressive relationships such as that it is possible that newly hired employees engaged in turnover because they determined they weren’t a good fit for the organization or that perhaps a reverse relationship exists where employees decide they are going to quit their job and then engage in lateness and absenteeism more frequently. More research was needed to evaluate organizational conditions and employee satisfaction (Rosse, 1988). Research done since 1988 has begun to evaluate the impact of organizational conditions, job satisfaction, and other factors on withdrawal behaviors such as lateness, absenteeism, and turnover.
A 2005 study examined the influence of five dimensions of organizational culture (Carmeli, 2005). These dimensions were identified as job challenge, communication, trust, innovation, and social cohesiveness (Carmeli, 2005). The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of employees' withdrawal intentions and behavior in light of these constructs. Three forms of employees' withdrawal intentions from the job or organization, as well as one form of employees' withdrawal behavior (i.e. self-reported absenteeism) were examined (Carmeli, 2005). The findings of this study indicated that an "organizational culture that provides challenging jobs diminishes employees' absenteeism, and withdrawal intentions from the occupation, job, and the organization" (Carmeli, 2005).
At the conclusion of the study, the results revealed that other dimensions of organizational culture were not significantly correlated with the dependent variables, with the exception of the relationship between a culture of innovation and employees' withdrawal intentions from the job (Carmeli, 2005). This study contributes to a better understanding of the influence of organizational contexts (e.g. culture) on the development of multiple withdrawal intentions and behaviors (Carmeli, 2005).
A longitudinal study completed in 2007 examined the impact of prior absenteeism, demographic variables, and work attitudes (job satisfaction, perceptions of health, and work commitments forms) on absenteeism and turnover intentions (Cohen & Golan, 2007). The study was conducted through a questionnaire that used established scales of the research instruments. The sample was composed of 119 female employees working in five long-term nursing facilities in northern Israel (Cohen & Golan, 2007).
The results showed a strong effect of prior absenteeism on later absenteeism. It also showed that among work attitudes, job satisfaction is a strong predictor of absenteeism, while commitment forms, particularly organizational commitment, are related to turnover intentions. Cohen & Golan (2007) did note that their research could be limited in that using a survey questionnaire for collecting most of the data might cause common method error; however, the findings of this study shed some more light on important work outcomes in general and in the health care industry in particular. Increasing job satisfaction and organizational commitment are potentially good strategies for reducing absenteeism and turnover intentions (Cohen & Golan 2007). A higher rate of absenteeism provides an early indication of a withdrawal process among employees, and the organization should treat such information as more than just data on absence rates (Cohen & Golan, 2007).
Due to the high costs associated with lateness, absenteeism, turnover, and burnout organizations should continue to seek ways to minimize withdrawal behaviors. Effective techniques for reducing withdrawal behaviors can be implemented through company policy and by developing clear and effective job structures within a supportive work environment.
Job Structure and Work Environment
- Managers need to clearly define job responsibilities because role conflict and role ambiguity can both foster negative employee attitudes and emotions (Podsakof et al, 2007). These negative attitudes and emotions can lead to withdrawal behaviors.
- Managers at all levels need to monitor and recognize changes in lateness behavior in order to prevent progression to more serious withdrawal behaviors such as absenteeism and turnover (Blau, 1994). Supervisors can meet with employees to discuss why the employee is engaging in withdrawal behaviors, such as lateness, and work with the employee to develop a solution (Stern, 2009).
- Managers need to work to reduce hindrance stressors, such as organizational politics, hassles, and resource inadequacies (Podsakof et al, 2007). These stressors can lead to decreased job satisfaction and organizational commitment which can eventually lead to increases in withdrawal behaviors such as turnover (Podsakof et al, 2007).
- Managers can improve employees’ job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and job involvement by communicating frequently with employees about their perceptions and needs, involving them in decision making, and by fostering a challenging and supportive work environment. These efforts will also help prevent burnout.
- In the event of downsizing, managers can help their employees adjust by providing a clear vision of the corporate goals, vision, and plan as well as providing assistance and encouragement and offering development workshops (Lewin & Johnston, 2000). These efforts will help maintain organizational commitment and levels of job satisfaction, which will help prevent withdrawal behaviors.
Organizations and their human resources departments have programs implemented to address absenteeism, lateness, and chronic tardiness. Many organizations offer paid time off (PTO), sick time, personal leave, and holidays. In cases of prolonged illness of family situations, organizations also utilize the Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA), paid medical leave, excused leave of absences, etc. In the event that an employee is excessively tardy or absent, many organizations use write-ups, warning letters, and other forms of discipline. Many organizations post policies regarding lateness and absenteeism. In order to effectively combat tardiness and absenteeism, a company policy should be clear, easy to understand, and enforced.
SAMPLE ABSENCE AND TARDINESS POLICY
An employee who is absent or tardy twice during a single pay period will be given a verbal warning and the supervisor will write a report about the verbal warning that will be forwarded to executive title and placed in a company record.
An employee who is absent or tardy within a 15-day period after the verbal warning will receive a written warning and the supervisor will forward a copy of the written warning to executive title and placed in a company record.
An employee who is absent or tardy within a 15-day period after the written warning will be suspended without pay for 3 to 5 days. The supervisor will consult with executive title to determine the length of the suspension, and whether the employee should be returned to "introductory" status or terminated after the suspension.
The supervisor of any employee who is absent or tardy within a 30 day period after suspension will give executive title a notice of the absence or tardiness. Executive title will be responsible for decisions on all terminations.
Many employers post these policies in a company handbook. Employers often ask employees to sign contracts or an agreement to abide by the company policies outlined in the handbook.
In addition to establishing company policies on tardiness and absenteeism, some organizations may also send supervisors to training programs to help them prevent, identify, combat these negative behaviors. For instance, there is a training program by Lorman Educational Services provided for managers for managing absenteeism and tardiness. The training program focuses on managing attendance, understanding employee laws, effective policy and procedures, avoiding abuse, and other issues surrounding managing attendance (Lorman Education Services, 2009).
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