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Current research has been done from the theoretical perspective.  Expectancy theory has been useful in explaining that initiating new behaviors depends on the values the individual has received by a particular outcome or goal (Wood, Logar, & Riley, 2015)  . Organizations and the people in them are motivated to engage in behaviors that will lead to attainable goals, not ones they believe to be unattainable (Wood, et al, 2015).  If people are provided the proper resources to obtain the desired goal, they will have more belief in themselves that they can attain a desired goal.  Providing motivation to people along with the proper resource availability is the most successful combination in order to increase activity (Wood, et al, 2015).  The person using these tools or resources may not use them for a few reasons. First, they may have no interest in engaging or accomplishing the task.  If the person isn't interested in attaining the desired goal, they will not be motivated to expend any effort.  Second, they may be unaware of the usefulness of the tool.  If they do not know how to use the tool, or see it's utility in attaining the desired goal, they won't be interested in using it.  Finally they may be unable to operate the tool either through lack of knowledge or through lack of capability (Wood, et al, 2015).  This can affect their self-efficacy as far as their ability to achieve the desired goal.  It can be detrimental in their overall motivation.  From the results of their current research, it was found that simply increasing awareness of resources raises instrumentality, but does not increase of activity (Wood, et al, 2015). This particular outcome shows the importance of incorporating expectancy, instrumentality, and valence into examples of goal behavior at the same time. The results also tell us that removing things that only block resources does not lead to increases in activity.  Making motivation central to the initiation of work activity provides strong theoretical groundwork to explain management operations as they relate to motivating followers (Wood, et al, 2015).

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