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23 00 01 Owner General Requirements and Design Intent
.01 HVAC Design General Requirements
- General: HVAC Design Professional services and documentation shall include the following:
- Comply with 01 00 00 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS.
- Develop the HVAC component of the Basis of Design document to meet Owner’s Project Requirements and update at each design phase submission.
- Perform all necessary design analysis and calculations.
- Submit load summaries. Provide breakdowns for zones, major areas, subsystems and equipment loads. Include common engineering check figure ratios such as cfm/sq. ft., heating BTUH/sq.ft, and cooling sq. ft./ton.
- Sound and Vibration control analysis: Perform calculations and selection of attenuation provisions for HVAC systems to maintain sound and vibration within acceptable levels for each application.
- Economic / Life Cycle Cost Analysis: Perform and submit as required to confirm selection of base systems and potential options for alternate bids.
- Performance Requirements Compliance Documentation: Coordinate with lead Design Professional to submit application portions. Comply with requirements in 01 80 00 PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS.
- All drawing sets shall include:
- Coordinated single line diagrams shall include both existing and new work as applicable.
- Overall building airflow diagram(s) showing interrelationships of air handling units, exhaust fans, duct risers and mains, primary dampers and air balance / pressure relationships.
- Overall building hydronic and steam system diagrams showing interrelationships of main heating/cooling plant equipment or central utility source, heat exchangers, pumps, pipe risers and mains and primary isolation and control valves.
- Diagrams shall include connected and cumulative design capacities and flow rates which can be toggled on during design phase for review purposes and off if desired for final construction documents.
- Clear delineation between demolition, existing to remain, and new work on plans and riser diagrams.
- For areas with special pressure relationship requirements that must be properly controlled, the Design Professionals shall include plans in the construction set of drawings showing simplified pressure relationships and tabular summaries of overall air balance for each pressure controlled space and summaries of system airflows.
- These plans shall be the basic floor plan (clearly identifying all room names/use - not just numbers) with easily recognizable tags for any room that is not neutral pressurization. The tag would indicate airflow direction (e.g. + and - or POS and NEG) and airflow (cfm).
- The drawing would also have a table indicating system level summaries of airflows per floor. (i.e. System SA (max/min), RA (max/min), General Lab Exhaust (max/min), Fume Hood Exhaust (max/min), General Exhaust, Transfer Air (including intended source - adjacent system), and any other special exhaust systems).
- The purpose is to have easy to follow summaries to help everybody involved understand the design intent during all phases of the project and for the record set for future operation and maintenance reference. Showing transfer air on a complicated duct drawing does not work well. The concept is similar to having simple Life Safety Plans for accurate and quick understanding.
- DESIGN FOR COMPLETENESS: All projects are expected to be complete at their conclusion, meaning that the project generates no need for additional efforts beyond the planned scope. Any expansion or renovation of conditioned space must include an assessment of the adequacy of the utilities infrastructure. Above all, the campus maintenance staff is not available to complete projects or provide remedies to problems caused by the project.
- Architectural Coordination:
- Space Planning: Comply with requirements in 01 05 05 Space Planning, .01 Planning for Engineered Building Systems
- Coordinate generous space programming allowance for equipment and shaft space for M/P/E distribution systems, including future flexibility for future expansion.
- Plan for and clearly label any future equipment space needs on drawings.
- Drawings shall include equipment sizes and locations, showing locations of all required service areas to be kept clear, including coil and tube pull and adequate space for major component replacement,
- Coordinate locations of supplementary structural steel above and/or clear space above and around equipment for portable gantry crane for rigging of large component replacement.
- Thermal Comfort: Comply with ASHRAE 55 Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy. Coordinate with Architect to integrate thermal envelope design and HVAC design iteratively such that thermal comfort criteria is met in the section 5.2 Method for Determining Acceptable Thermal Conditions in Occupied Spaces. Perform calculations and analysis for representative spaces.
- Criteria to be evaluated with respect to thermal envelope design includes:
- Operative Temperature (average air temperature and Mean Radiant Temperature)
- Allowable Radiant Temperature Asymmetry
- Allowable Vertical Air Temperature Difference
- Allowable Range of Floor Temperature
- Notify the Project Manager if comfort criteria is jeopardized due to impact of thermal envelope and/or if HVAC systems are being expected to overcompensate for lack of high-performance of the thermal envelope.
- Coordinate outdoor and rooftop HVAC equipment locations and screening requirements per 01 05 01 Site Requirements
- Inform and help guide space planning when applicable with respect to efficient equipment zoning for efficient operation and accommodating unoccupied shutdown.
- High-Performance Energy-Efficiency: Professional shall design each HVAC system and equipment application for optimal operating efficiency, and flexibility with the lowest life cycle cost.
- General: Comply with requirements in 01 81 13 Sustainable Design Requirements.
- Equipment Selection: Design Professional shall carefully evaluate and properly select the most effective equipment type and to best suit the needs of the application with emphasis on minimizing operating and life cycle cost, rather than minimizing size and first cost.
- Part Load Operation: Carefully evaluate system turndown requirements. Consider modular, multiple unit configurations where effective and practical for proper and efficient low part load operation and to help prevent complete system or building shutdown upon failure of a single primary HVAC system component.
- Primary and Terminal Equipment Zoning: The simplest and most effective method of energy conservation is to turn things off when not in use. To this end, zones with similar uses, environmental conditions, fresh air ventilation rates and occupancy schedules should be grouped together, to the extent possible, on the same HVAC system, to accommodate unoccupied shutdown.
- In general, general offices should be grouped together, but separate from classrooms and both should be separate from lab/research zones requiring 24/7 operation and/or 100% outside air.
- Define and keep separate special use zones with continuous process cooling loads such as main TNS and College Server rooms or audio-visual closets with high load densities that require independent cooling systems to accommodate unoccupied shutdown of central systems.
- Reliability and Redundancy: Professional shall determine the adequate amount of redundancy for each application of mechanical equipment to meet the Owner’s Project Requirements.
- Confirm Owner requirements for redundancy are clearly defined.
- Install fully redundant (N+1) stand-by chillers for extremely critical applications (such as critical research laboratories and computer centers) and/or as otherwise defined specifically in the Owner’s Project Requirements.
- For non-critical applications (such as general office spaces, general purpose classrooms, general commercial type spaces) full redundancy/complete standby is typically not required.
- Determine and specify applicable emergency power requirements. (research, process or other specific critical application).
- Check with Failure analysis to determine weak links in system and revise as necessary.
- Flexibility: Consider potential future expansion. Extent of expansion will be determined on a case-by-case basis. Consult with the University Project Leader and Engineering Services.
- Utilities / Infrastructure Coordination:
- General: Comply with requirements in 33 00 00 UTILITIES
- Perform analysis of existing utilities and/or existing HVAC infrastructure and submit summary of required upgrades to support new work.
- Utility Demand and Consumption Form: Submit and update throughout design phase.
- UTILITIES IMPACT POLICY: Each project is responsible for funding all utility infrastructure upgrades made necessary by that project.
- UTILITY DESIGN:
- Designer shall consult with current drawings, planning connections, and upgrades.
- University is in the process of developing master plans. Contact Project Manager.
- Mechanical Identification: Coordinate identification nomenclature with University Standards per 23 05 01.06 Mechanical Identification.
- HVAC Controls / Building Automation Systems:
- Comply with requirements in 25 00 00 INTEGRATED AUTOMATION.
- Coordinate control design with OPP Building Automation System (BAS) Application Engineering.
- 25 90 00 GUIDE SEQUENCES OF OPERATION: Designers shall use guide sequences of operation, whenever available. These “master” guide sequences have been developed and implemented at University Park in conjunction with existing BAS vendors and shall form the basis of the main sequences to maintain overall uniformity. Guide sequences shall be edited as necessary to meet project specific requirements. Fundamental modifications shall be reviewed and approved by the manager of the OPP BAS group. Do not cut and paste portions into designer’s “office standard” sequences.
- Variable Frequency Drives for HVAC Motors: Designers shall use guide specification in 26 29 23 Variable-Frequency Motor Controllers. Guide specification shall be edited only as required to meet project specific requirements. Proposed modifications shall be reviewed with OPP Engineering Services.
- Miscellaneous OPP Additional Resources and Links:
.02 Related Documents
- The general requirements of the Penn State Office of Physical Plant Design and Construction Standards, including the Introduction, General Notes to the Professional and Contract Administration Division and General Conduct of the Work and Special Requirements apply to the work specified in this Division.
- For convenience, other sections with additional University-specific associated requirements related to HVAC work, include, but are not necessarily limited to, the following:
- 01 00 00 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
- 01 56 10 Temporary Protection of Outdoor Air Intakes
- 01 56 16 Temporary Dust Barriers and Construction Indoor Air Quality Control Plan
- 02 00 00 EXISTING CONDITIONS
- 13 00 00 SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION: HVAC requirements for special purpose spaces such as Classrooms, Bookstores, Labs, etc.
- 14 00 00 CONVEYING EQUIPMENT: ventilation and environmental requirements for elevator machine rooms
- 27 00 00 COMMUNICATIONS: Minimum Standards for Telecommunications Facilities, 5.1.2 Environmental requirements
- Reserved for future.
- Design Calculations: The University requires calculations to be submitted for all projects.
.05 Standard of Quality/Quality Assurance
- General (Reserved)
- Pressure Vessels
- All pressure vessels shall be in accordance with the requirements of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Department of Labor and Industry Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels.
- Tanks and pressure vessels shall be inspected, stamped and certified to be constructed in accordance with the above code and the ASME Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels.
- Operating certificates shall be turned over to the University upon completion of the project.
.06 Coordination and Space Planning
- General: Refer to Space Planning requirements in the Introduction of the Design and Construction Standards.
- Mechanical Rooms:
- Mechanical rooms shall be designed in accordance with the most current version of all applicable codes.
- Mechanical rooms shall be planned with sufficient size and equipment laid out to provide adequate maintenance clearances for all equipment; (i.e. for filter changes, tube and coil pull spaces, repair of components, etc.). Adequate means of access shall be provided for replacement of largest piece of equipment without removing general construction or moving other equipment. Minimize the need to do maintenance from ladders. Provide overhead structural steel with portable chain hoists to lift heavy motors, compressors, fans, etc. Provide adequate lighting.
- Mechanical rooms shall be provided with an automatic ventilation system.
- Mechanical rooms shall be provided with a minimum of one floor drain. Floor drains shall be piped to sanitary system.
- Provide mechanical rooms with minimum one hose bibb with backflow preventer in supply piping.
- All equipment drains, blow down lines, etc. shall be piped to a floor drain with an approved air gap fitting.
- Mechanical rooms shall be located to provide access directly from the building exterior. Mechanical rooms shall not be located where vibration and/or noise would be objectionable.
- Janitor Rooms
- Janitor rooms are not accessible to maintenance employees. Therefore, mechanical equipment, valves, electric panels, thermostats, etc. are not to be placed in these rooms.
- Refer to Division 23 00 10.03 for janitor room ventilation requirements.
- Equipment Locations
- Terminal units and air handling equipment shall not be located above an occupied space unless prior approval is received from the University. All equipment must be readily accessible for maintenance.
- Floor mounted equipment shall be installed on concrete housekeeping pads. Pads shall be isolated from the surrounding slab if vibration requirements warrant.
- All equipment installed on grade outdoors shall be installed on reinforced concrete pads. Foundation requirements shall be analyzed for large pad-mounted equipment.
- Locations of mechanical equipment which affect the aesthetics of the building and Campus shall be approved by the Environmental Quality Board. Discuss approval procedures with the Project Manager.
- Equipment above the finished floor level or roof level shall be provided with access platforms or walkways suitable for maintenance activities.
- Equipment accessible to the general public shall be provided with screens, fences, or enclosures to deter vandalism and to prevent access to dangerous conditions.
23 00 10 Systems Selection and Application
- Construction documents shall clearly record all pertinent information and criteria related to the design, construction and intended operation of the HVAC systems. Such information shall include, but not necessarily be limited to:
- Critical space temperature and pressure relationships to be maintained.
- Construction phasing planning as required to minimize disruption to existing facilities and occupancies.
- Future provisions including:
- Intentional oversizing of equipment or distribution systems and intended future connection points.
- Floor Space to be kept clear for future additional equipment.
- Provisions for major equipment replacement such as removable louvers or knock-out panels, etc.
- Special operating instructions of systems, special purpose valves, dampers or manual/emergency type controls.
- Shut-down and emergency instructions.
- Intended summer and winter operating and change over instructions.
- Any other special operating or maintenance instructions.
- Equipment (Non-typical)or Process Load Criteria: Design criteria for specialized, non-typical equipment or process heat gains (excluding people, lights, conduction, and solar loads), in critical and special areas such as computer rooms, microcomputer labs, research labs, etc. shall be scheduled on the drawings by room number for future reference.
.02 Design Conditions
The following are general design guidelines for inside and outdoor design conditions.
Area Description Season Indoor Outdoor Comments Comfort Areas Summer
90°F DB 74°F WB
1, 4 5 Labs & Critical Areas Summer
92°F DB 74°F WB
Note 5 Animal Rooms Summer
95°F DB 75°F WB
Cooling Tower Selection Summer
- Consideration shall be given to morning warm-up cycle.
- Typically these systems are required to be 100% outdoor air systems, therefore, the outdoor design conditions are altered for these and any other 100% outside air systems. Specified discharge air temperatures shall be maintained at all times.
- As specified in the latest edition of "Guide for Care & Use of Laboratory Animals".
- Operating control setpoints shall be as follows:
- Comfort Areas such as general office/classrooms
- Occupied: 70 heating, 75 cooling
- Unoccupied: 60 heating, 85 cooling
- Holiday Setback: 50 heating, 85 cooling
- The University Park Campus chilled water system distributes chilled water at a supply temperature of 43°. Therefore, all chilled water coils must be selected to function at a supply chilled water temperature of 43° with a minimum of 12°. The exception to this requirement is chilled water coils that are expected to provide cooling year-round to isolated zones that are not practical to serve via airside economizer (examples: telecom/data closets, elevator equipment rooms). These chilled water coils must be selected to function at a supply chilled water temperature of 48°, which is the winter “free cooling” maximum supply water temperature.
- General: Ventilation systems shall be designed to achieve high indoor air quality by providing adequate amounts of fresh air to maintain adequate and safe breathing air, control odors, and associated exhaust to remove contaminants from occupied spaces for each application. Proper pressure relationships shall also be maintained where required with adequate differential airflow between adjacent spaces in the direction from most clean (positive) to most dirty (negative).
- Codes, Standards and Guidelines: In addition to minimum requirements of the Building Code, ventilation systems shall be designed in accordance with the following current editions of industry standards and design guidelines.
- ASHRAE 62.1- Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality
- ASHRAE HVAC Applications Handbook: Follow the guidelines for the General, Comfort, and specialty Industrial/Process/Research Applications associated with the project scope
- ANSI/AIHA Z9.5 - Laboratory Ventilation
- The purpose of this standard is to establish minimum requirements and best practices for the design and operation of laboratory ventilation systems to protect personnel from overexposure to harmful or potentially harmful airborne contaminants generated within the laboratory. This standard:
- Sets forth ventilation requirements that will, combined with appropriate work practices, achieve acceptable concentrations of air contaminants.
- Informs the designer of the requirements and conflicts among various criteria relative to laboratory ventilation.
- Informs the User of information needed by designers.
- This standard does not apply to the following types of laboratories or hoods except as it may relate to general laboratory ventilation:
- Explosives laboratories
- Radioisotope laboratories
- Laminar flow hoods (e.g., a clean bench for product protection, not employee protection)
- Biological safety cabinets
- Standards used by the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care (AAALAC) International for Accreditation of Animal Facilities:
- Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources
- Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching
- Special Requirements from Users: Determine any project-specific research or process ventilation or pressure relationship requirements with the University User’s representative and review with Operations staff at OPP. Requirements may vary.
- Cooling of Utility Spaces: Use ambient/outside air for cooling of general mechanical and electrical distribution rooms to the fullest practical extent.
- The preferred typical temperature range for these spaces is 55°F minimum (heating) and 85°F maximum (cooling) to provide acceptable temperatures for equipment and service personnel yet balanced with goal of requiring minimal heating and cooling energy. Care must be taken in establishing a minimum temperature in order to avoid the risk of condensation in electrical equipment. It is permissible for seasonal, short-term (partial day) operation at a maximum of 10°F above the 99.6% Summer Outdoor Design DB temperature, but not to exceed the most stringent maximum ambient operating temperature ratings of any installed equipment.
- For applications that cannot otherwise maintain acceptable operating conditions per the above in a practical, cost-effective manner using either outside air or air transferred from adjacent conditioned spaces, provide mechanical cooling as required. Mechanical cooling systems shall be designed to operate only minimally as required to maintain recommended upper temperature limits for equipment expected to operate for extended periods at those conditions, in order to optimize service life. For spaces requiring continuous cooling, do not rely solely on central air systems serving multiple spaces with scheduled occupied/unoccupied periods. Design shall accommodate shutdown of central systems during unoccupied periods.
- Elevator Machine Rooms with electronic controls and/or solid state components shall be conditioned with split-system heat pumps.
- Centralized battery banks, equipment with large batteries such as centralized Uninterruptible Power Supplies and/or other similar battery applications shall be in spaces with temperature maintained for optimum battery capacity and service life – generally between approximately 65 and 80°F (confirm with battery equipment manufacturer’s recommendations). Ventilation of centralized battery rooms must be designed to limit any hydrogen concentration to lowest levels specified by accepted industry standards.
- Where fuel-fired equipment uses room air for combustion, do not use exhaust fans that will make the mechanical space negative and thus adversely affect proper combustion or venting of flue gases.
- Openings to the outdoors shall be screened/ minimally filtered to keep out insects, dust, pollen, etc. Air for the main station switchgear and motor control center rooms should be relatively clean. Any makeup air supplied from outdoors shall be filtered with minimum 30% efficient air filters.
.04 Standby Equipment for Critical Areas
- Standby equipment requirements shall be discussed with the Project Manager for systems serving critical areas such as:
- Research Buildings
- Animal Rooms
- Main Frame Computer Rooms
- Elevator Machine Rooms (Required for buildings with four (4) or more stories above the egress level.
- Contract documents shall indicate equipment which is intended for standby service.
- Animal Rooms, in addition to being tied into the main building chilled water system, shall have a totally independent air-cooled, chilled-water system to serve as backup during summer operation and to provide a year round supply of chilled water.
- Auto changeover shall be provided for all standby equipment. Changeover shall be alarmed to CCS. Refer to Division 23 09 00.
.05 Emergency Shutdown
- All systems shall be arranged for emergency shutdown requirements outlined in the applicable codes.
- Emergency shutdowns shall be alarmed to CCS.
- CAMPUS CHILLED WATER:
- Much of University Park Campus is, or will be, served by a campus loop chilled water system. The chilled water system of each new building must be designed so as to be compatible with the characteristics of the campus chilled water system. New buildings shall have chilled water pumps (in a booster arrangement from the campus distribution loop with check valves and automatic control valves). Refer to Campus Chilled Water System Building Service Entrance Details (with our without heat exchangers as applicable).
- Buildings served by a central chiller plant shall NOT have an automatic water make-up connection. Make provision for flushing and initial filling of the chilled water system using domestic water.
- Expansion tanks shall not be installed in any part that directly connected to the campus chilled water system. Buildings provided with a heat exchanger will require an expansion tank (bladder type) in the building side of the heat exchanger, but NOT in the campus side.
- Refer to Chilled Water System Sequence of Operation posted for the general requirements relating to Building Chilled Water Control Systems. Review and coordinate project specific modification requirements with University Chilled Water Utility Engineer.
- All buildings shall be provided with shut-off valves at the building entrance (inside the building) with manual air vents and drains on the plant side of the shut-off valves. Refer to Building Wall Penetration Detail.
- All isolation valves shall be high performance butterfly valve, lug style.
- Provide thermometers in thermal wells. Provide manifold pressure taps to a single gauge. Automatic air vents shall have isolation valves for replacement/maintenance. Manual air vents to consist of ¾” ball valves and necessary pipe/fittings to clear valve handle of insulation. Discharge from manual air vent valve to turn out horizontally from carrier pipe and be provided with hose bibb connection and cap on chain. Low point system drains are to be installed in similar fashion with ball valve, piping, hose bibb connection and cap. Provide air/water separators with a combination of manual and automatic air vents at all high points in system and drains at low points.
- Emergency chilled water tie-in points shall be provided on air conditioning critical buildings such as animal facilities, computing centers, medical facilities, etc. Discuss with Project Manager for application.
- Zoning of the systems shall be done in accordance with sound engineering judgment relating to varying load conditions, function of space, occupancy schedules, etc. Final zoning shall be discussed at conceptual design stage with the Project Manager. Rooms shall be individually controlled.
- All Classrooms are to be separately zoned to allow cooling all year long, including those times when building air conditioning is turned off for the season. Refer to Division 13 for further references to General Purpose Classroom document that includes information on HVAC needs related to Classrooms.
.08 Water Systems
- Glycol Dry Coolers
- Utilize free cooling option for computer room systems when it is cost effective.
- Refer to Detail [23 xx xx .xx]. Details are not yet available in WEB-based manual.
- Process Cooling Water Systems
- City water is not permitted to be used in "once through cooling" applications.
- Laboratory equipment and other applications requiring specialized process cooling water shall be appropriately designed by the Professional. Specialized process cooling equipment or heat exchangers and pumps connected to other building condenser water loops may be utilized, if applicable.
- The Professional's approach should be reviewed with the University early in the design process.
.09 All-Air Systems (General)
- Ducted supply and return systems are required. Return plenums are not permitted unless prior approval is received.
- One hundred percent shutoff VAV systems are not permitted. Minimum airflow must be maintained to satisfy ventilation requirements. Reheat shall be provided for all interior and exterior zone VAV boxes.
- Economizer cycle (temperature controlled) shall be utilized on all systems for areas requiring year-round cooling.
- For all systems five tons and over utilizing economizer cycles a separate return fan must be utilized to provide positive relief and also to provide standby capacity in the event of supply fan failure. Relief or exhaust fans are not allowed for this application.
- All sheet metal shall be specified to be constructed in accordance with the latest edition of SMACNA's HVAC duct construction standards.
- It is the intent that duct leakage tests will not be necessary since the Professional will be specifying a high quality duct joint and seam sealant or sealing system to be installed on all ductwork constructed to static pressure classifications of 1" and greater.
- The Engineer shall specify a duct static pressure construction classification, a duct seal classification and a duct leakage classification (when required) for all duct systems. All values shall be as recommended by SMACNA in "HVAC Air Duct Leakage Test Manual", First Edition-1985.
- Duct Leakage Tests shall only be required for air systems with a 4" or greater duct static pressure construction classification.
- Duct systems constructed to static pressure classes lower than 4" shall be inspected for leaks by a representative of the Professional’s office or the University prior to insulation of the duct system. All sources of audible noise shall be identified and sealed in accordance with the project specifications.
- Main frame computer room air conditioning systems shall be package computer room units, glycol cooled, with free cooling option. In raised floor rooms, distribution shall be under the floor. Raised floor shall be high enough to provide adequate air circulation but in no case less than 12".
- Units shall be equipped with trouble indicators, audible alarms with silencers and auxiliary contacts for shutdown upon detection of fire. All alarms shall be interconnected with CCS and the Contractor shall be required to demonstrate to a University Representative that each alarm is fully functional and connected to CCS.
- Humidification shall be provided to satisfy computer requirements using building steam. Electronic steam generators shall not be used except where building steam is not available. Discuss exceptions with Project Manager.
- Standby equipment shall be discussed with the Project Manager.
- Refer to Detail [23 xx xx .xx] for piping. Details are not yet available in WEB-based manual.
.11 Micro and Personal Computer Lab Air Conditioning
- See Paragraph 23 00 10.10.A, except that raised floors are not normally installed and distribution may be ducted overhead.
- Humidification is not normally required.
- Standby equipment is not required.
.12 Laboratory Ventilation Systems
- Laboratory HVAC systems shall be designed to satisfy the specific parameters for each laboratory to provide a safe working environment for all personnel, maintain the necessary indoor environmental conditions to conduct the teaching and/or research within each laboratory, and meet the high-performance requirements in Division 1 of the Design and Construction Standards.
- The Design Professional shall collaborate with the University representatives in order to understand the function and associated parameters for each laboratory application and thus determine the most appropriate HVAC system selection and design.
- Ascertain as early in the design process as possible all HVAC design parameters with the laboratory supervisor, college/department safety staff, OPP Engineering Services, OPP Facility Automation Services, and Environmental Health and Safety.
- For areas or processes requiring user-controlled variable parameters, all such variable operating ranges must be carefully reviewed with the users to establish a clear understanding of expected operating conditions and system performance.
- All parameters shall be fully tabulated on the construction documents for each laboratory.
- Parameters shall include:
- Temperature range and allowable rate of change
- Humidity range and allowable rate of change,
- Minimum occupied/unoccupied ventilation rates for type of lab and associated hazard assessment
- Room pressure relationships
- Specific type(s) of laboratory containment/exhaust equipment with associated performance parameters. The identifying nomenclature of the type shall conform to the OPP Equipment Acronym List / Facility Asset Management Database.
- Application-specific alarming requirements, in coordination with the laboratory supervisor/safety staff, EHS, and OPP Facility Automation Services. Detailed requirements shall include:
- Alarm set points,
- Alarm notification class (General, Critical, Preventive Maintenance, Diagnostic, Life Safety, or other specialty if needed)
- For Critical, Life Safety or other specialty alarms, define the distribution list and preferred method (email, text, or voice message) of associated alarm notifications to key recipients,
- Air treatment requirements for process and safety, which can include any combination of particulate, HEPA, gas-phase filtration, and other air purification/sanitizing treatment of supply and/or exhaust.
- Defined spare capacities and/or control operating range allowances that can cost-effectively accommodate anticipated, potential changes.
- Specific requirements for standby equipment and emergency power to achieve system reliability and life safety.
- In general, EH&S recommends that ventilation systems (exhaust and adequate make-up air) serving fume hoods be connected to emergency power, to prevent toxic and/or flammable gas/vapor build-up in the event of a power outage, which has previously been related to a fire on campus.
- Emergency power is not an absolute requirement for all cases. Each project-specific application shall be assessed among the Design Professional, scientific staff, EHS, and OPP; and the capabilities and/or implications to the electrical infrastructure shall be determined.
- Operable window systems are prohibited in conditioned, pressure-controlled laboratory spaces due to the following reasons.
- Life Safety Consequences: Loss of proper air pressurization control
- Random crossflows (drafts) in a space, created by wind, adversely affect a hood's ability to capture, resulting in an unsafe working environment.
- A windward (positively pressurized) opening in a laboratory space has the potential to over-pressurize an individual room, reversing pressures and forcing laboratory air into the egress corridor rather than safely collecting/exhausting air at the designated discharge points.
- A leeward open window can draw a significant quantity of air out of a lab, causing multiple consequences: reduced hood capture, "stealing" pressurized air from one location causing adjacent labs to be positive in respect to the corridor, and permitting exhaust effluent to potentially affect pedestrian areas outside the building.
- Energy Consequences:
- Uncontrolled airflow into or out of a window reduces the energy recovery capability of the exhaust system.
- An open window can arbitrarily drive the HVAC system to extremes, thereby increasing energy usages, and potentially causing adverse effect to adjacent spaces.
- Window seals break down over time, leading to leakage and comfort issues.
- Research Consequences (loss of controlled conditions):
- An open window can allow various biological, physical, and chemical constituents into the airspace, completely circumventing the air filtration or other air treatment systems, and thus adversely impact research in the space.
- Accurate temperature and humidity control cannot operate properly with a "rogue zone". Therefore, systems may not be able to operate within the user's tolerances for temperature and humidity.
- Laboratory space humidity cannot be controlled with an open window. Vapor pressure will always equalize, and quickly, regardless of wind direction.
- HVAC infrastructure serving laboratory spaces shall be flexible and adaptable. Research objectives frequently require changes in laboratory operations and programs. Therefore laboratory ventilation systems must be designed to be able to accommodate reasonably anticipated changes without significant modifications.
- The utilities, distribution and terminal equipment system design shall be flexible enough to supply ample cooling to support the addition of heat producing equipment without requiring modifications to the central HVAC system. Apply a minimum 10% safety factor to sensible cooling loads. Consult with OPP if higher factors are requested by laboratory users for more specific anticipated needs.
- Ventilation system infrastructure design shall be easily adaptable to allow programmatic research changes with associated modifications to the laboratory's ventilation system infrastructure to be kept within the confines of the individual laboratory area, and/or interstitial and utility corridors.
- HVAC construction document sets shall include drawings showing simplified pressure relationships and air flow summaries complying with requirements in Section 23 00 01 Owner General Requirements and Design Intent, .01 HVAC Design General Requirements.
- Maintain generous, safe, convenient service access to all laboratory HVAC system components serving and/or within laboratory spaces, including but not necessarily limited to, air terminal units, laboratory supply and exhaust air terminals, and BAS controllers, valves, actuators, terminal humidifiers, etc.
- Equipment must be readily accessible by ladder, without special accommodations.
- Equipment must be able to be removed without interrupting water, power, data, or fire protection services, or dismantling building general construction or fixed laboratory furniture.
- Avoid creating “confined spaces” for regular maintenance access, as defined by the Penn State Confined Space Program, and the OPP Confined Space Policy 05-005.
- Equipment installed in a prohibited or inaccessible location shall be relocated at no additional expense to the University.
- Codes, Standards and Guidelines:
- In addition to minimum requirements of the Building Code, laboratory ventilation systems shall be designed in accordance with the following (or current) editions of industry standards and design guidelines.
- ANSI/AIHA Z9.5: Laboratory Ventilation (2012)
- ACGIH Industrial Ventilation: A Manual of Recommended Practice (2013 edition, or current)
- ASHRAE 62.1: Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality (2010 or current)
- This standard shall supersede the associated portion of the International Mechanical Code for mechanical ventilation rates in Breathable Zone and associated procedures, Air Classifications, Recirculation and Outside Air Intake criteria.
- ASHRAE Standard 110-1995 (or current) -- Method of Testing Performance of Laboratory Fume Hoods
- ASHRAE Applications Handbook including, but not necessarily limited to, the chapters for Educational Facilities and Laboratories.
- NFPA 45: Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals (2015)
- OPP Design and Construction Standards: Including but not necessarily limited to the following:
- Other Laboratory Design Resources:
- National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS) - Whole Building Design Guide - Research Facilities
- I2SL, Labs21 Tool Kit, Best Practices Guides
- A Design Guide for Energy-Efficient Research Laboratories - Version 4.0, http://ateam.lbl.gov/Design-Guide/Index.htm
- PSU Environmental Health and Safety Requirements:
- The Design Professional shall consult and collaborate with each department’s laboratory/research liaison, Facility Coordinator/Safety Officer, and EHS to determine optimized ventilation requirements for each application.
- Laboratory hazard/ risk level – EHS has piloted an assessment tool (lab banding tool) supporting determination of a relative risk/hazard level for laboratories, with the objective of deriving occupied and unoccupied minimum laboratory ventilation (exhaust) rates for all EXCEPT high hazard laboratories. High hazard laboratories may include such spaces as Clean Rooms and ABSL-rated laboratories. Contact EH&S for assistance in determining current relative hazard/ risk levels, and/or current recommended laboratory exhaust ventilation rates.
- Laboratory exhaust ventilation rates are influenced by several factors, and laboratory-specific design requirements. These factors may include, but are not limited to:
- The quantity of low flow/high efficiency exhaust hoods specified for use in a given space, and the available make-up air system demands,
- The type of laboratory work employed (research vs. academic), impacting necessary safety factors,
- Research activities, hazardous chemicals or agents used, and whether part of continuous or discreet processes,
- Outdoor fresh make-up air requirements to meet spatial indoor air quality requirements (ASHRAE 62.1),
- Air classification/recirculation demands (ASHRAE 62.1).
- EH&S has drafted a Laboratory Ventilation Management Plan as recommended by and based upon ANSI Z9.5. This document will be developed in collaboration with applicable Penn State stakeholders. Contact EH&S to discuss other recommended laboratory ventilation management practices, or for a current copy of the draft document. EH&S Office Phone: 814-865-6391
- Refer to the subsequent section, Laboratory Fume Hoods and Other Containment Devices for other EHS requirements regarding fume hood performance testing criteria.
- Outside air intakes shall be located according to guidelines established by AIHA/ANSI Z9.5-2012 (Section 5.3.3), and ASHRAE 62.1.
- High-Performance Laboratory HVAC Design Requirements:
- Follow Best Practices for Sustainable Design. As part of meeting the Performance Requirements and Sustainability goals of the University, careful attention must be given to the design, construction and continued operation of Laboratory spaces. Refer to the U.S. EPA and DOE sponsored Labs for the 21st Century (Labs21) Tool Kit, including the Best Practices Guides. Apply them to best fit each specific project scope giving consideration to the University’s local operating staff to achieve high performance and the lowest long term total life cycle costs.
- Segregate spaces according to function and associated air recirculation criteria. Segregate non-hazard type spaces (i.e. offices, non-lab workspaces, classroom-use “teaching labs” or “dry labs” – those that are limited to physics, physical testing, and/or electronic equipment, which do not include volatile or hazardous constituents) from more hazardous, “wet” laboratory spaces. Air from non-hazardous spaces may be recirculated within other design considerations. Air from hazardous laboratories, i.e. wet labs or those that generate hazardous or noxious contaminants require fume hoods with 100% exhaust and 100% outside air make-up. Consult EHS for assistance.
- Design for energy-effective makeup air transfer in both occupied/unoccupied periods. Maintenance of proper pressure relationships in non-hazardous laboratory spaces should permit design of mechanical ventilation setback adjustments during unoccupied use periods. For instance, an air handling system serving adjacent regular office spaces and/or corridors shall not be required to run 24/7/365 in order to provide make-up /transfer air into the lab spaces. This should not prohibit the use of mutually beneficial transfer of air when it can be used during shared occupied periods. Such use may require alternately serving the transfer zone/corridor with the lab system make-up air during unoccupied periods.
- Segregate energy-intensive operations, areas and associated systems. The architectural and engineered systems design of labs shall segregate equipment and process cooling loads wherever possible to avoid forcing overall central systems into greatly multiplied, energy-intensive, inefficient operating conditions in order to meet some relatively small but specialized, highly- concentrated or critical processes.
- Segregate areas that require very tightly controlled temperature and humidity or air treatment conditions from spaces that are simply providing typical ventilation requirements and/or human comfort.
- Similar load profile areas and their associated zone controls and air handling systems shall be grouped appropriately to meet the intent of maximizing energy-savings during all operating modes (occupied, unoccupied, demand-limiting, and holiday break modes).
- Use “mini-environments” to isolate energy-intensive operations to fullest extent practical.
- Collaborate with scientific staff to inform and guide them to select water-cooled process equipment in lieu of air-cooled units that reject heat to lab space whenever possible.
- Safely Reduce Unnecessary Exhaust Hood Use. Work with representatives of scientific staff to minimize use of exhaust ventilation hoods, where practicable, and within EHS requirements, while still meeting their needs.
- Eliminate/decommission unnecessary existing exhaust hoods wherever practical.
- Use local / snorkel exhaust devices strategically to capture applicable noxious, or non-hazardous odors as close to the source as possible to maintain overall high indoor air quality while keeping general lab ventilation rates as low as practical.
- Optimize Ventilation Rates for all operating conditions. The design of lab ventilation and fume hood systems shall be carefully integrated to strive to continuously and optimally match the general minimum ventilation rates (during occupied and unoccupied periods wherever applicable) and specific exhaust hood and makeup air and pressure relationships needed to maintain a healthy and safe work environment for the occupants.
- Refer to Labs 21 Best Practice Guides Optimizing Laboratory Ventilation Rates.
- Consult with PSU Environmental Health and Safety as indicated in section (C.) above.
- Optimize use of Variable Air Volume Technology. Apply variable air volume to exhaust and supply air makeup systems to the fullest extent practical within the project constraints.
- When considering fume exhaust systems and related equipment or changes to an existing system, the designer should first consider whether the labs served are fume hood- driven or air-exchange-driven with respect to airflow. For example, there may be little or no energy saving advantage to utilizing low flow/ high efficiency hoods in a lab that is otherwise driven by minimum air change rates.
- In coordination with the department, consideration must be given to whether the department/ locale will have the commitment of resources necessary to ensure that adequate staff, training and preventive maintenance are available for continued operation of sophisticated ventilation systems, as designed.
- Evaluate Variable Geometry Discharge Dampers. Applying variable geometry discharge dampers to fume hood exhaust fans can be a value-added option that allows modulating the fan speed to control exhaust duct static pressure and to maintain constant stack velocity / effective plume discharge height rather than requiring modulating a bypass damper on a constant speed fan assembly.
- This technology should be evaluated and applied where it offers the lowest life cycle cost.
- Consider developing as an additional energy conservation measure alternate bid option with an estimated payback analysis as appropriate.
- Include Provisions for Demand Controlled Ventilation. Laboratory control systems shall include capability to apply space occupancy sensors to achieve demand based minimum ventilation strategies applicable to laboratories.
- This feature shall be capable of being disabled in specific control settings of individual lab spaces.
- For example, occupancy sensors would not be permitted to set back ventilation rates in laboratories designated with a higher risk level/ hazard band that required constant rates.
- Optimize Use of Manifolded Laboratory Exhaust Systems – In applications with multiple ventilated containment devices, generally connect into a common manifold exhaust system with the recommended multiple fan lead/lag/standby assembly (3 fans each @ 50% maximum capacity).
- The intent is to achieve the benefits listed below (see Labs 21 Toolkit, Manifolding Laboratory Exhaust Systems):
- Ability to take advantage of exhaust system diversity and fume dilution
- Ability to provide a redundant exhaust system by adding one spare fan per manifold and thus increasing personnel safety (lab user’s and maintenance staff)
- Opportunity for energy recovery
- Design Flexibility and adaptability
- Fewer pieces of equipment to operate and maintain
- Centralized locations for exhaust discharge
- Fewer roof penetrations and exhaust stacks
- Lower ductwork cost
- Note: Caution! Carefully review specific building and fire codes and standards prior to manifolding ventilation systems, to ensure that containment systems exhausting toxic, corrosive, flammable, explosive and other related hazards are kept segregated by design. Consult EHS, OPP Engineering, and the Code AHJ during design to ensure safe compliance.
- Design for Minimal Pressure Losses – Laboratory exhaust air systems shall be designed to minimize pressure drops through each component, fitting, and the total system to minimize associated fan energy requirements. This is especially important for manifold systems.
- Refer to Labs 21 Best Practice Guides Low-Pressure-Drop HVAC Design for Laboratories.
- Review and optimize exhaust device selection for lowest pressure drop with lab consultant (as applicable). Be careful to not allow hoods or snorkels with high individual pressure drops that end up causing the whole system to have to operate at the higher pressure, which can have a huge impact on the fan energy.
- Minimize length of duct runs and number of elbows, transitions, fittings and abrupt changes and combinations of all of the above that contribute to high pressure requirements.
- Optimize Use of Air-to-Air Energy Recovery. Apply Air to Air Energy Recovery equipment in safest and most cost-effective manner. Evaluate and select the option(s) that offer the lowest total cost of ownership, and/or comply with the criteria as indicated in 01 81 13 Sustainable Design Requirements, .05 Owner's Additional Energy Conservation Options - Alternate Bid Requirements, as most appropriate for the scope of the project.
- General Lab (Room Air) Exhaust: Enthalpy wheels are typically recommended to maximize total energy recovery from non-contaminated/non-hazardous general lab exhaust airstreams. It is acceptable and preferable for non-recirculated air drawn from general lab spaces (not fume hood exhaust) to be exhausted by typical variable air volume (VAV) HVAC exhaust fans and discharge louvers at normal velocities, when this exhaust is located at appropriate distances from other building air intakes (refer to ASHRAE 62.1 Section 5.5, Table 5-1 Air Intake Minimum Separation Distance), as opposed to forcing all laboratory air through the more energy-intensive high-plume type fume hood exhaust fans.
- Fume Exhaust: Where heat recovery systems are not prohibited for laboratory fume exhaust systems, glycol runaround coil systems are typically recommended to segregate air stream to prevent cross contamination. Where used, all associated aspects of the design and construction shall include:
- Special emphasis for specifying materials of construction of coils and protective filters/housing, and
- Provisions for safe inspection, cleaning and maintenance of these systems.
- Note: The application of heat recovery shall be subject to complying with the requirements and exceptions for laboratories in which chemical use is on a nonproduction rather than in a manufacturing process as described in the Mechanical Code.
- Special Purpose Containment Devices – Devices dedicated to toxic or flammable or other specialty hazardous exhaust systems, and classified as such, shall not be installed with heat recovery systems, per the Mechanical Code.
- Air Filtration – Appropriate particulate filtration shall be included in the design for all air entry sides to heat recovery equipment, in order to keep surfaces free of dirt and debris, and to extend cleaning periods as long as practical. Filter housings shall be the most appropriate type and located in a convenient and safe manner, to permit routine access for inspection and safe filter change-out maintenance.
- Air filter maintenance must be considered in the design of the system. The design engineer is required to coordinate with OPP Engineering, and EHS, to achieve acceptable solutions for the protection and life safety of maintenance personnel.
- Laboratory Fume Hoods and Other Containment Devices:
- The design, construction, installation and operation of laboratory fume hoods and other containment devices shall conform to applicable sections in AIHA/ANSI Z9.5 (2012). All ventilated containment devices shall be the current state of the art, high-performance designs, applied in a manner to sufficiently contain the hazards for which they are selected and as generated under as-used conditions with minimal airflow and pressure drop requirements. This requirement shall supersede other, older references in 11 53 13 Laboratory Fume Hoods of these OPP Design & Construction Standards, with regard to constant volume, bypass- type hoods, until that section is updated in the future.
- Laboratory ventilation systems shall be designed to achieve the following requirements and chemical fume hood operating performance test criteria, established by EHS.
- NOTE: According to the AIHA/ANSI Z9.5 standard, studies indicate face velocity criteria alone is an inadequate indicator of overall containment performance, and shall not be used as the only performance indictor for designing or verifying ventilated containment systems. However, the containment systems must be capable of operating within the minimum face velocity criteria, as defined in this D&C standard, and as established by EHS.
- Review and confirm current requirements with EHS during the design phase.
- Conventional or Low Flow High Efficiency (LFHE) fume hoods shall be selected for use from those manufactured to minimally meet ANSI/ASHRAE 110-1995 “As Manufactured” test criteria, and with containment tests over the range of possible design configurations.
- The following parameters shall be included with regards to design, construction, installation, and operation of LFHE hoods:
- Consult EHS for guidance during major projects involving LFHE hood installations, until such time that EHS develops a separate standard for selection, installation, commissioning, preventive maintenance, and monitoring of LFHE fume hoods.
- LFHE hoods, regardless of whether VAV or other type flow controllers are installed, shall not be operated at less than 80 fpm at 18” open sash height, during occupied mode, unless otherwise approved by EHS.
- NOTE: Caution! Though low flow hood manufacturers indicate low flow/high efficiency hoods may operate safely at low face velocities, i.e. < 60 feet per minute (60 FPM), Penn State EHS does not permit the installation and operation of LFHE hoods at this operating parameter, to ensure safety margin is applied. Refer to subsequent sections of this D&C standard for clarification.
- Existing conventional, auxiliary or by-pass hoods shall not be adapted to function as low flow/high efficiency hoods.
- Low flow/ high efficiency (LFHE) hoods shall be purchased and utilized for the intended design purpose.
- All other types of chemical fume hoods shall be installed to minimally operate at 100 fpm at 18” open sash height.
- Chemical fume hoods shall not be permitted to operate at greater than 150 fpm at operating sash height. Chemical fume hoods, whether conventional or LFHE, should not be operated outside the range as prescribed or recommended by the hood manufacturer.
- Chemical fume hoods (also including LFHE hoods) may not continuously operate outside a deviation exceeding 25% commissioned average face velocity at operating sash height, and such cases, shall be referred to the pertinent local maintenance authority, and/or to OPP/Engineering Services for immediate corrective action.
- Minimum face velocity requirements shall be posted on the front of the hood at the time of installation, as established by the project requirements. Contact EHS for assistance and clarification with hood labeling.
- Unoccupied face velocity setback controls shall not be programmed for hood operation at face velocities less than 60 fpm, and with the hood sash in designated closed/lowered position.
- Controls shall not permit unoccupied setback mode operation with the hood sash in other than designated closed position.
- Generally, in applications with multiple hoods, fume hoods shall be of the VAV airflow control type, with respect to sash position. Some exceptions may apply; however, review with OPP Engineering Services and EHS is required.
- The operating mechanisms for vertical and horizontal sashes shall be high quality and well-engineered so the sashes can easily be adjusted by users.
- Hoods with poor quality cables, pulleys, and sliding mechanisms that allow the sashes to bind up and require excessive effort to move them are prohibited.
- The force shall not exceed the criteria in ANSI Z9.5, 3.1.1 Sashes. If such conditions are encountered on a project, hoods must be repaired or replaced at no additional cost to the University.
- The sash position sensors should be “non-contact” type for reliable, long service life when using VAV hood systems.
- Variable resistance pressure activated type are prohibited.
- Specify corrosion-resistant screens (approximately 1/2-inch x 1/2-inch mesh) at exhaust inlets of fume hoods.
- Screens shall be designed and installed to prevent suction of materials such as paper towels or lab wipes into the exhaust system that can cause airflow sensing or clogging problems at VAV airflow stations, duct turning vanes, and fan blades.
- Factory-installed screens are preferable for best fit and finish.
- Laboratory hood controllers shall have provisions to allow for the present or future use of proximity sensors.
- Consult/ review specific laboratory operating conditions with EHS.
- Where the laboratory application allows for fume hoods to be reduced to UNOCCUPIED airflow rates, the hood-occupant proximity sensors shall be used to return fume hood airflow exhaust rates from UNOCCUPIED to OCCUPIED mode/conditions when an occupant is sensed near the hood during those scheduled unoccupied hours of the laboratory.
- Proximity sensors shall not be used to intermittently reduce fume hood flow and/or associated face velocities to unoccupied rates during the scheduled occupied hours of the laboratory.
- NOTE: Proximity sensors shall not be enabled in continuous required chemical fume hood use, such as in continuous research process applications.
- Hood flow/velocity sensors shall be selected and prescribed, according to fume hood type, to be a high quality assembly to achieve long-term reliability and effective communication with the building automation system (BAS), AND the pertinent fire and/or smoke alarm (life safety) systems.
- Other Considerations and Requirements
- Fume hoods should not be situated directly opposite normally occupied work stations.
- All air distribution devices shall be carefully located within the laboratory to avoid turbulence and cross currents near the fume hood face, which can negatively affect the fume capturing performance of the fume hood.
- Biological Containment Devices – The 2008 National Institutes of Health (NIH) Design Requirements Manual for Biomedical Laboratories and Animal Research Facilities (DRM), formerly called the NIH Design Policy and Guidelines, is the only detailed design requirements and guidance manual for biomedical research laboratory and animal research facilities in the United States. Compliance to the DRM, which promulgates minimum performance design standards for NIH-owned and NIH-leased new buildings and renovated facilities, ensures that those facilities will be of the highest quality to support biomedical research.
- The DRM requirement that fume hood face velocity never falls below 80 feet per minute shall be applicable to buildings that are constructed using NIH funding, and/or building renovations conducted using NIH funding, whether the entire building is renovated, or if more than 50% of the building is renovated.
- Anatomy Laboratory and Specialty Containment Exhaust Systems
- General: Shall comply with AIHA/ANSI Z9.5-2012, Section 2.1.1 (or current), “Adequate laboratory fume hoods, special purpose hoods, or other engineering controls shall be used when there is a possibility of employee overexposure to air contaminants generated by a laboratory activity.”
- Anatomy/cadaver laboratories: Shall be designed and constructed according to industry current best practice guidelines using most current recommended containment/ local exhaust ventilation types, such as side slot collection tables, to achieve effective exposure control.
- Design Resources:
- Refer to American Association of Anatomists Gross Anatomy Laboratory Design.
- ACGIH Industrial Ventilation: A Manual of Recommended Practice (Current Ed.), Specific Operations, “Mortuary Table”.
- For renovations of existing anatomy laboratories/cadaver dissection rooms, not fitted with the recommended type of collection tables or other source capture ventilation, hazardous vapor or aerosol contaminants (e.g. formaldehyde-containing agents), other mechanical ventilation shall ensure user exposure control is maintained less than the applicable exposure criteria presented subsequently at item 4.
- HVAC systems, including energy recovery options, shall be selected from types that do not permit seal leakage or cross contamination, nor subsequent recirculation of anatomy/cadaver room air (i.e. ASHRAE 62.1 Class 4 airstream).
- Requirements for all other containment/exposure control devices include:
- Laboratory hoods and other containment devices must be designed and installed to meet current laboratory performance guides, and function properly and adequately to control air contaminant exposure levels, at a minimum, to less than the applicable OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL’s). Where measurement is required, and in the absence of PEL’s, other exposure standards or criteria shall be identified, selected and used to assess adequate control, in consultation with EHS.
- Where air contaminant levels are measured for OSHA compliance, or to evaluate exposure levels in comparison with other exposure criteria, validated OSHA, NIOSH, or equivalent methods shall be used.
- Air contaminant monitoring to assess effectiveness of ventilation controls shall meet OSHA and/or other selected exposure criteria. Determine such requirements in consultation with EHS.
- Laboratory HVAC System Controls
- Laboratory controls and associated acceptable manufacturers shall be coordinated and reviewed with OPP Facility Automation Services and shall conform with their requirements. Refer also to the requirements in OPP Design and Construction Standards - Division 25 - Integrated Automation.
- OPP Facility Automation Services shall be consulted in all matters related to laboratory ventilation system controls.
- For specialized lab ventilation system controls, avoid use of independent LONworks LAB controller that requires a gateway interface to BACnet BAS.
- Laboratory controls should be part of the overall BAS contract responsibilities, and shall be fully integrated into the BAS system. Installation shall be by the BAS Vendor.
- Clearly specify adequate instrumentation, sensors, application-specific alarming/notification requirements, and the ability to trend and store data as required for each laboratory application.
- Full functional performance testing (FPT) of all laboratory HVAC system controls within the project’s extent of work is essential to verify and record the controls are operating in a safe, energy-efficient, tuned, and reliable manner. Full FPT shall be clearly defined and shall be specified as a mandatory requirement of the construction phase laboratory HVAC checkout procedures/commissioning process.
- Laboratory HVAC System Commissioning and Functional Performance Testing
- For new or renovated laboratories, in order to ensure all lab spaces are constructed and operating effectively, laboratory ventilation systems shall include detailed specifications for specialized laboratory HVAC commissioning according to industry best practice guides for laboratories.
- Related Standards, Guides, and Resources:
- AIHA/ANSI Z9.5-2012 Laboratory Ventilation Standard, Section 6, Commissioning and Routine Performance Testing.
- Labs 21 Toolkit Commissioning Ventilated Containment Systems in the Laboratory.
- Specifications shall include requirements for a detailed written commissioning plan, to be approved by the Owner in advance of related construction activities.
- Laboratory HVAC Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing; and Commissioning Requirements
- Laboratory ventilation system Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing (including hood/containment device performance) shall be conducted and a certified Balance Report provided for the following conditions:
- New construction
- Laboratory renovations that involve necessary changes to general mechanical ventilation systems,
- Ventilation system components or controls that have failed, and must be repaired or replaced,
- Laboratory use / configuration changes that require alterations to or replacement of terminal equipment and/or operating parameters and settings.
- Scope shall include ALL components that drive and control and/or monitor the HVAC-related conditions in laboratory spaces that include ventilated containment devices and/or require continuously maintaining associated air pressure relationships for indoor air quality and safety. Typically that includes:
- Laboratory supply air valves and supply diffusers
- Laboratory general exhaust air valves and room exhaust air distribution devices
- Laboratory fume exhaust ventilated containment devices and associated fume exhaust air valves
- Fans (supply and exhaust)
- All associated BAS Controllers, sequences, trending, and alarms
- Any other related items integral to this equipment.
- Wherever general mechanical ventilation systems must be balanced or re-balanced, laboratory hoods shall be functionally performance tested/commissioned according to ANSI/ASHRAE 110 protocol, to include: airflow visualization, auxiliary air velocity (only for auxiliary air hoods), cross drafts velocity, exhaust flow, face velocity, hood static pressure, and tracer gas containment.
- Project specifications shall include requirements that the TAB agent (or other party responsible for functional performance testing of laboratory hoods) visibly labels each performance tested laboratory exhaust hood with the correct hood average face velocity setting at sash operating height, specified for the correct hood operation and certify to the OPP Project Leader when complete. The OPP Project Leader shall then notify EH&S/Lab Safety Officer to confirm and co-certify this has been completed as part of the project turnover process.
- Where applicable, other containment devices, such as cadaver tables, shall be similarly labeled with the appropriate minimum performance measurement criteria.
- Commissioning, where required, shall address the following:
- Commissioning requirements shall be determined in coordination with EHS and Engineering Services.
- Commissioning shall be overseen by a responsible person/ commissioning authority, who shall engage pertinent parties as identified in this laboratory ventilation standard.
- Commissioning shall be conducted prior to turnover to owner.
- Commissioning recommendations and requirements shall be included in the Operating and Maintenance manuals and Owner Training at time of turnover.
- Periodic Performance Testing
- Periodic performance testing of laboratory hoods and containment systems is generally advised by current standards and codes to ensure continued safe and energy-efficient operation.
- EHS shall conduct or arrange face velocity testing on an annual basis in coordination with pertinent OPP or campus maintenance authorities as a “pass/fail” stop-gap test to verify average fume hood face velocities exceed minimum acceptable requirements.
- Specific Requirements
- For laboratory ventilation systems including cadaver tables, and other containment devices, manufacturer performance criteria, including but not limited to face velocities, must be provided to the Owner for subsequent periodic performance testing of the tables, hoods, fume collection boxes, and containment devices, as recommended by the manufacturer.
- Periodic Performance criteria must be discussed with the Owner during project design and prior to installation.
- Periodic performance testing recommendations and requirements shall be included in the Operating and Maintenance manuals and Owner Training at time of turnover.
- Periodic performance testing should verify:
- Room exhaust provisions are within specifications,
- Room differential is within specifications,
- Room differential airflow is within specification,
- Hoods are operating with respect to recommended tolerances of commissioned parameters.
- Facility Asset Management System
- The University has a computerized facility asset management and preventive maintenance system. All laboratory ventilation system equipment shall be planned and fully coordinated with the OPP’s Maintenance Engineering (ME) Group to be included in the asset database.
- The asset database information shall include identification, description, location, performance characteristics and recommended operating and maintenance procedures defined for each component to ensure continued safe and effective operation.
- Maintenance Engineering Office Phone: (814) 865-4837