Vroom (1964, 1995 as cited in PSU WC PSYCH 484, 2014, L4, P.2) introduced the Expectancy Theory to I/O psychology in the 1960's, and suggested that "the source of motivation is the mulitiplicative function of valence, instrumentality, and expectancy." It is the perception of the individual for these factors that must be positive. In order to preserve the largest motivational force of an employee, the perceived outcomes resulting from perceived performance must also be desirable for the employee. Many times there is more than one single desirable outcome. Outcomes can be combined, such as:
- receiving a paycheck,
- receiving a raise,
- keeping a job,
- earning additional paid time off,
- reaching a bonus incentive,
- receiving praise from a manager.
If the belief of the employees is that the outcomes will not produce the desired result, motivation is not produced. In order for employees to perceive outcome, the details in their performance must be clear from management.
(PSU WC PSYCH 484, 2014, L4, P.2).
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