Beaver Stadium a History
Protruding out of the mountainous Pennsylvaniacountryside, one awe-inspiring structure looms over HappyValley, shrouding it in the history and tradition of the PennsylvaniaStateUniversity. Throughout Pennsylvania, PennStatefootball is king and Beaver Stadium serves as the castle that overlooks the kingdom. For some the stadium is a symbol of honor, for some it serves as a place of worship and for others it is a symbol of terror. Children grow up with the dream of one day playing in Beaver Stadium, parents and grandparents reminisce of the experiences they have shared, and opposing teams arrive dreading the roaring crowds, which will undoubtedly affect their game. What makes sporting venues legendary is the stories that are associated with them, the true testament to the history of Beaver Stadium are the countless anecdotes of the fans.
Today, Beaver Stadium has attained an almost religious status amongst Nittany lion fans. However, the Beaver Stadium we know today holds little resemblance to its humble origins. Slated at the southeast gate of the stadium, The General James A. Beaver Monument serves as a reminder to all who pass, of the stadium’s humble beginnings. A Civil War hero, James A. Beaver served as the commander of the 148th Pennsylvania Volunteers. A causality of several wounds throughout the war, Beaver sustained his most devastating wound at Ream's Station, which left him maimed for life after the loss of his leg.[1|#_ftn1] After the war, Beaver returned to Bellefonte to practice law with his father-in-law, Hugh McAllister.
Hugh N. McAllister was one of the founders of the Pennsylvania State College (now PennsylvaniaStateUniversity). The college faced financial ruin had it not been for McAllister who, “stepped into the breach and gave $500 from his own pocket to cover some unpaid bills.”[2|#_ftn2]Beaver shared his father-in-law’s interest in the school, serving as the President of its Board of Trustees between 1874-82 and 1898-1914.[3|#_ftn3] In 1887, Beaver was elected Governor of Pennsylvania and during his term, he reduced the state debt by three million dollars and responded quickly to the victims of the disastrous 1889 Johnstownflood.[4|#_ftn4] It was also during Beaver’s term as Governor that he appropriated $15,000 for an inter-collegiate athletic field for the college in 1891.[5|#_ftn5]
This athletic site, which is situated on the current location of Whitmore Laboratory, was named in honor of Governor Beaver. The recently christened Beaver Field was used primarily for track events and baseball games. Accordingly, the funds appropriated by Beaver were used to build a track and grandstand on the site.[6|#_ftn6]The first inception of Beaver Field, ironically had very little to do with football, in fact at the time the sport was in its infancy and evoked only mild interest. As Beaver Field evolved into Beaver Stadium, from its humble beginnings in 1891, the seating capacity changed, the sports that played in it changed, even the location changed, but one thing remained constant the name. This may attest to PennState’s sense of tradition, or it may be that the efforts of James A. Beaver have resonated among the PennState community as a bastion of goodwill.
Today, another marker commemorating James A. Beaver’s efforts is situated outside the stadium’s east side. Upon looking upwards from that marker, one will notice the modern window structure, which encloses the sixty donor suites. Today, Alumni involvement is a major facet of PennState athletics, and the donor suites atop Beaver Stadium serve only as a reminder. Historically, the tradition of Alumni contributions and involvement in PennStateathletics dates back to 1909. That was the year when Beaver Field was relocated from its location near Whitmore Laboratory, to the location of where the Nittany Parking Deck is today. As acting President of the College, James A. Beaver allotted an eighteen-acre plot of land for a new field, which was sure to be “the best equipped, most compact athletic plant in the college world.”[7|#_ftn7]
Perhaps this act solidified the Beaver name with PennState athletics. In an article from October of 1908 in the State Collegian, the PennStatecommunity was outraged by the consideration of renaming the new field, “It will truly be a great field, and worthy of a great name, and no name is worthier, more honored, more respected, and more beloved, than that borne by General James A. Beaver.”[8|#_ftn8] The field was eventually named New Beaver Field, but to what extent did Beaver’s contributions facilitate the completion and to what extent was it the role of Alumni? In 1908, students amended the Athletic Advisory Committee, composed primarily of alumni, to assist in the organizing and financing of intercollegiate sporting events, thus beginning the tradition of alumni involvement in PennState athletics.[9|#_ftn9]Students greatly appreciated the efforts of the alumni, for example, the State Collegian attributes the speedy completion of New Beaver Field to Mr. A.C. Reed who loaned his wagons and scrapers to work on the field, “without which the work could not have progressed so rapidly.”[10|#_ftn10]
Original plans for the new Athletic site included a baseball cage, track house, and swimming pool, however when it opened, New Beaver Field consisted of a half-mile track, football field, baseball grounds, sixteen tennis courts and a lacrosse area. For seating at the field, the grandstand from Old Beaver Field was relocated and situated on the West side of the track and gridiron. Bleachers were added to each side of the grandstand, increasing the seating capacity to about 1,200. Along the baseball fields, sixty feet of bleachers were added to each side of the baseball fields, raising their capacity to 800.[11|#_ftn11]New Beaver field was dedicated on May 7, 1909 and hosted interscholastic track meet, amongst local high schools and middle schools.[12|#_ftn12]At the dedication, the recently formed cadet band, an antecedent to the modern-day Blue Band, also played, beginning another time honored Beaver Stadium tradition.
Today the Blue Band takes the field at half time, entertaining fans with the “greatest show in college sports”; however, in the early days of Beaver Field, the band was not as common a staple as it is today. An article from the State Collegian in October of 1910, voices some criticisms of fan involvement at games. Apparently, at the last two home games the students cheering performance was lax, so the writer implores the students to cheer to their utmost ability at the games by reminding students that the eleven men out on the field do not sit down during the game. Nevertheless, the article attributes, what little fan spirit that was displayed, to the State band:
To be just and give credit when credit is due, the band was the distinct factor which was instrumental in bringing about this much hoped for show of enthusiasm and henceforth at every game we hope to see the State musicians contribute their support it a similar way.[13|#_ftn13]
Today, the Blue Band has become synonymous with Beaver Stadium, however New Beaver Field and its predecessor, share very little of the same conventions that Beaver Stadium does today. This can be attributed to New Beaver Field’s inclusiveness of all collegiate sports, that not only were football games held there but also baseball games, band meets, and even horse shows.
New Beaver field was the stage for the Pennsylvania State College, and during the early part of the twentieth century, sports dominated the public’s interest. After three winning seasons under Coach “Big Bill” Hollenback in 1909, 1911, and 1912, PennStatefootball became an obsession of the Pennsylvaniasporting community. The program gained national attention playing the likes of Yale, Cornell, Harvard, and Navy.[14|#_ftn14]Football fever reached new levels in 1911 when the Engineering Department broadcast the game between PennState and heated rival Penn at Franklin Field in Philadelphia. The games were not broadcast in the traditional way, people were not able to tune their radios into color commentary, rather fans gathered on Old Main lawn to hear updates of the game from atop the clock tower. From the WanamakerBuildingin Philadelphia, telegraph wires were transmitted to Old Main, where members of the Engineering Department would announce updates to the congregation below.[15|#_ftn15]The tradition of gathering for away games continues today, for example at Findlay Commons students gather to watch away football games, and recreate the stadium atmosphere by doing their favorite PennStatefootball cheers.
Most of the traditional cheers and fight songs fans now here at the stadium were originally adapted in the early part of the twentieth century, as the inclusion of the band at sporting events increased. The “Victor_”_ fight song was adopted in 1913 and included mention of rivals Pitt, Penn, and Harvard, all teams that have not seen Beaver Stadium in some time. The song was written by glee club member James Leyden, who also went on to write the fight song “The Nittany Lion.” The song has gone through a few amendments over the years and is currently referred to as “Hail to the Lion_”_ by the Nittany lion faithful.[16|#_ftn16] New Beaver Field served as grounds for celebration, men would accompany women to games and meets, dressed in their finest clothes. Programs for the day’s events would be handed out at the gates, and on the back, the PennState alma mater was printed for fans to sing-a-long with. Going to the events at New Beaver Field seemed to be more of a joy for alumni and faculty than students. In many State Collegian and Penn State Collegian articles, it seems that the students were regularly less then enthralled by the event. One article in particular was enraged when undergraduates left a game in November of 1922 before singing the alma mater, which was traditionally sung after every sporting event, as a testimony of the loyalty of PennState’s fans.[17|#_ftn17]
Over the years, New Beaver Field went through many renovations before its eventual relocation in 1959. At its humble beginnings, New Beaver field had a capacity of 500 with the grandstand from Old Beaver Field, and by 1949, the stadium was outfitted with seating for 27,500 spectators. In 1934, the old wooden grandstand was abandoned for a new steel structure erected on both sides of the field.[18|#_ftn18]In 1949, the school sought to upgrade the field as more people wanted to attend the games. The renovations focused on views for spectators. Spectators in the first and second rows were complaining about straining their necks to see over the football players to the field of play and freshman were outraged because there were not enough seats for them.[19|#_ftn19] A new steel structure at the North end zone added 9,400 seats. To form a horseshoe, architects included additions to the pre-existing stands on the East and West side of the field, totaling 3,500 new seats. The new East and West sections towered at forty rows high, while the North section topped out at thirty with exits at the top to ease post-game traffic.[20|#_ftn20]
Not only were additions made to seating capacity in 1949, many additions reflected the growing popularity in football and PennState’s desire to be at the forefront of football supremacy. A new all-steel press box was added, with “all the newest features for newspaper, radio and photographic coverage of home football games.”[21|#_ftn21] Under the West stands, the school added new dressing quarters, including two sizeable locker rooms, with showers and toilet facilities, plus rooms for equipment, officials, and trainers, for both the home and away teams.[22|#_ftn22]The new steel and glass press box was commended for its beauty and contemporary style throughout the football community --“visiting coaches, scouts, scribes photographers and announcers from the Eastern states all proclaimed the arrangement one of the finest in the region.”[23|#_ftn23]The additions to New Beaver Field in 1949 would remain in place until its relocation in 1959, thus beginning the era of Beaver Stadium.
The relocation of Beaver Field to the area of its current location on Curtin Road, was a highly anticipated event amongst students. Students from the architecture department even drew up their own plans for the new stadium. Some of the lofty ideas included a mushroom shaped stadium, coverings over seats, and retractable lower level seating.[24|#_ftn24]However, the structure erected at the new site on Curtin road, resembled New Beaver Field’s same horseshoe design. Upon the completion of the Holy Cross game on November 14, 1959, construction workers began dismantling New Beaver Field. The large steel structures came apart like an erector set in more than 700 pieces.[25|#_ftn25]To move the large pieces to the northeast corner of campus, school officials restricted traffic up and down Curtin Road for nearly 45 days, as large trucks move the steel structures.[26|#_ftn26]
In September of 1959, the new skeleton of Beaver Stadium was rising from the ground, towering seventy-five feet in their air. This steel structure would provide the support for the new upper tier of seating.[27|#_ftn27]The new stands soared eighty rows high on each side, except for the north endzone section, which remained in the same form as it was at New Beaver Field. Among some of the other features transported from New Beaver Field were the scoreboard and steel press box. There were also complete clubhouses under the stands for the teams and full rest rooms and refreshment stands for the spectators. Also included were box seats for season ticket holders and a new eight-lane cinder track.[28|#_ftn28]With a seating capacity totaling 44,000 people, Beaver Stadium officially opened on September 17, 1960with a win against BostonUniversity, at an approximated cost of $1.6 million.
One reason for moving the stadium besides growing crowds was the issue of parking. New Beaver Field was located centrally on campus, by moving it out to open fields, not only was their room for parking, but it freed up much needed university space for academic buildings. With a provision for 10,000 more parking spaces after the 1960 inaugural season, director of athletics Ernest McCoy believed the stadium would be perfect grounds for “parking-lot picnics.” In an outline of parking provision at Beaver Stadium for the 1961 season, McCoy stated, “Eating out of the back of the car is ideally suited to parties coming to the campus from towns and cities within a 100 mile radius.”[29|#_ftn29]As a precursor to the modern-day tailgate, “parking-lot picnics” evolved into a permanent PennState tradition. By the 1970’s, “tailgate parties,” in the opinion of one student, became a “good excuse to get high, one way or another.”[30|#_ftn30]
One Daily Collegianeditorial in 1971 discusses the increase in alcohol consumption at games, and the influence tailgating has upon the situation. The editorial was provoked after the previous week’s game where a team manager was beaten when he tried to retrieve a game ball from the stands. In countless Collegian articles there are references to students concealing flasks and smuggling them into Beaver Stadium. It was so bad that one of the University’s honorary societies was even able to sneak a keg into the student section.[31|#_ftn31] Some people believe tailgate parties solidified the tradition of drinking in Beaver Stadium, because the adult not only condoned erratic behavior but also participated in it as well. In a Collegian article entitled “A Freshman’s Guide to Penn State Athletics” writer Ray McAllister claims tailgating is the alumni equivalent of students sneaking alcohol into the stadium.[32|#_ftn32]Tailgating is still a time-honored tradition at Beaver Stadium and has developed from a few people eating sandwiches out of the backs of cars into hundred plus people events with live bands and swimming pools.
Many letters to the editor of the Collegianchronicled some other problems at the stadium, such as students littering the stands and getting into physical altercations. The 1970s served as a defining decade in the transition in the atmosphere of Beaver Stadium. One reason as to why this may have occurred was the expansion of the stadium capacity. In 1969, the stadium increased its capacity to about 48,000 seats. Between 1974 and 1978, the stadium saw an expansion every two years. The biggest being in 1978 when 16,000 seats were added increasing the total capacity to 76,639.[33|#_ftn33]This was the same year that the track was removed and the press box was expanded, finally solidifying football’s solitary reign over the stadium.
The new era of Beaver Stadium began in the 1980s and as the stadium grew in new ways, so did the unforgettable stories. During the 1980s, the stadium was host to many more renovations, this time focusing more on bringing the stadium up to date technically. In an article in the Collegian from 1980 assistant to the dean of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation W. Herbert Schmidt discussed the addition of light to Beaver Stadium. Amongst his responses were they were not sure if fans would come out for a night game and lighting was too expensive.[34|#_ftn34] However, four years later Beaver Stadium added lights. An important distinction about appropriations for stadium improvements at that time was that all the money came from ticket sales, television revenue, and the Athletics department. This was unorthodox compared to other universities national football programs.
The field not only received lights in 1984, it also received something else very unconventional, a fans ashes. Upon her death in 1984, a true blue and white fan’s dying wish was to have her ashes spread over the field at Beaver Stadium. Both Athletic Director Jim Tarman and Sports Information Director Dave Baker could not confirm if the ashes were actually spread. However, University personnel said the women’s son discreetly spread his mother’s ashes on the field. Despite the fact that no one gave the son permission, maintenance committee supervisor Robert Hudzik said he had been notified about the ashes being spread in the stadium.[35|#_ftn35] The request was unusual and until this day, no one knows the truth behind this myth. It would from the statement that Hudzik made there is some truth to the story. However, Nittany Lion loyalist should think twice before requesting their ashes spread on the field, because Penn State Athletics would not allow this to happen today.
Bob Hudzik was not only involved in the situation in 1984, but he was also the central person involved in 1993’s “Mud Bowl.” In 1993, the stadium sought to replace the field’s turf. After the Blue and White game in April of 1993, the sod was completely removed, the ground was re-tilled to stimulate stronger root growth, with the new sod slated to arrive sometime in June. However, a drought that year delayed the arrival of the sod, finally finding replacement sod they laid it down in Beaver Stadium in July. Just eight days before the season opener the sod had a visible problem, even under light traffic pieces were coming dislodged. The only way to fix the grass before the season was to keep the sod dry to stimulate root growth, and under no conditions play on the field when it is raining.
For the first two home games of the season, the weather cooperated with Hudzik, staying dry and not dislodging too much sod from the field of play. That changed Saturday September 25 when Rutgers came to play. It had started raining Thursday night and did not relent until Saturday at game time. Throughout the game pieces of sod were being torn up at the accelerated rate of play, players were slipping all over the place, being covered in mud. Members of the grounds crew were moving chunks of displaced sod off the field in-between plays.[36|#_ftn36]Throughout the game commentators asked how this could happen at a school with such a prestigious turf-grass management program. After the game, not a piece of sod remained in the same place that it had been at the beginning of the game, and Hudzik was given under three weeks to replace the turf before the next home game.
New sod began being laid down the Tuesday of the next week. The new sod will was thicker than the original sod so more of the root system is in place. When asked about the cost of the new sod, Associate Director of Athletics Herb Schmidt said, "We haven't even talked about cost at this time. We're just trying to get the job done."[37|#_ftn37]The 1993 “Mud Bowl” would find a place in Beaver Stadium history as one of the most memorable games ever played. The replacement sod that was planted after the Rutgers game would remain in place until 2005, which is the last time the stadium replaced its turf. Rain may have affected the field in1993, but it does not affect the Nittany Lion fans. No weather condition can keep fans away from Beaver Stadium; it is just another defining characteristic of PennState fans.
Students flock to the stadium on Saturdays, to participate in all of the game-day traditions, and make memories of their own. Students relish the opportunity to “pass the lion” and return the “PennState” response to “We Are,” they tailgate, sing, and dance to the game in front of them. Over the years, there have been many different traditions PennStatestudents partake in, today we throw people up in the air after a touchdown, throughout the 1990s and early 2000s students would throw marshmallows. What started as a seemingly harmless tradition, the marshmallow throwing ended in 2002. Stadium rules forbid spectators to bring anything into the stadium, including umbrellas, liquid containers, etc. However, this never stopped students from smuggling in their marshmallows. Problems arose with the tradition, including frozen marshmallows being harmfully pelted at people, and melting marshmallows getting stuck in students hair and ruining their clothing.[38|#_ftn38]The situation reach a head in 2002 when students began to throw water bottles in lieu of their marshmallows and the hazardous throwing of objects was banned from the stadium for good.
Today’s Beaver Stadium came into existence in 2001, with the biggest renovation in the stadiums history. Work began on the $93 million project in November 1999. The expansion and renovation project has added a second deck in the South end zone as well as an East side pavilion with 60 enclosed suites. A club level seating section (4,000 seats) and stadium club, the Mount Nittany Lounge are also included in the South stands, bringing the total capacity to 107,282.[39|#_ftn39]The expansion also included the Penn State All-Sports museum, originally planned to be a separate structure, but incorporated into the stadium to be more efficient with money and space. The museum serves as homage to Old Beaver and New Beaver Field’s function as an inter-collegiate athletic facility.
Walking into the stadium today one would never know the humble beginnings of Beaver Stadium, however there are monuments to Penn State’s history throughout the stadium. Upon the suites are the years of Penn State’s undefeated, national championship, and Bowl Championship Series bowl games. Also along the top of Beaver Stadium, in the southwest corner of Beaver Stadium, one will see a Nittany Lion perched on top of the stadium. This copper plated weathervane made by world-renowned artist Travis Truck, sits 110 feet over Beaver Stadium. It measures ten feet in length, three feet in width, and nine feet in height, tipping the scales at 2,000 pounds.[40|#_ftn40]The weathervane was commissioned by University Trustee Joel N. Myers, founder and president of State College-based AccuWeather Inc. and serves as a monument to the $93 million dollar expansion and Penn State’s world-renowned Meteorology Program.
The stadium has changed a lot from its early inception as a playing field on the site of Whitmore Laboratory. The location, the shape, the capacity have all changed over the years, but one thing remains constant, the fans. Throughout Beaver Stadium’s existence, what solidify its legacies are the histories it shares with the spectators. From its first formation as a wooden grandstand, the field was a place of reunion, celebration, tragedy, and defeat. Now as a massive structure that looms out of the earth like a mountain range, Beaver Stadium embodies the same exact qualities that it did over a hundred years ago. Not much has changes at all.
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“College Plans Raising Beaver Field Capacity.” Daily Collegian. 10 December 1948: 1. Historical Digital Collegian Archive. Online (10 April 2009).
“Curtain Road Regulations Announced.” Daily Collegian. 21 November 1959: 1. Historical Digital Collegian Archive. Online (10 April 2009).
Fee, Erin. “Ravaged field gets sod checkup.” Daily Collegian. 29 September 1993. The Daily Collegian Online. Online (10 April 2009).
Fink, Sharon and Amy Endlich. “Sports complex, another stadium expansion approved by Trustees.” Daily Collegian. 22 January 1979: 1. Historical Digital Collegian Archive. Online (10 April 2009).
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Kendig, Tysen. “Nittany Lion weathervane to prowl atop stadium.” Penn State Intercom. 9 August 2001. http://www.psu.edu/ur/archives/intercom_2001/Aug9/vane.html.
Krane, Elliot. “Between the Lions.” Daily Collegian. 27 September 1949: 5. Historical Digital Collegian Archive. Online (10 April 2009).
Krebs, Jeanette. “Loyal lion fan has ashes sprinkled inside stadium.” Daily Collegian. 19 June 1984: 10. Historical Digital Collegian Archive. Online (10 April 2009).
Linn, John. History of Centre and Clinton Counties, Pennsylvania. Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts, 1975. 177-178.
Miele, Elaine. “Football Stadium Mushrooms in Architecture Student’s Plans.” Daily Collegian. 7 February 1959: 5. Historical Digital Collegian Archive. Online (10 April 2009).
Morgan, Tom. “Between the Lions.” Daily Collegian. 27 October 1948: 3. Historical Digital Collegian Archive. Online (10 April 2009).
Myers, Dean. “Got Marshmallows? Not at Beaver Stadium.” Daily Collegian. 2 November 2005. The Daily Collegian Online. Online (10 April 2009).
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“New Stadium Skeleton Rises.” Daily Collegian. 13 September 1959: 21. Historical Digital Collegian Archive. Online (10 April 2009).
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Wilson, Tracy. “Beaver Stadium designs set.” Daily Collegian. 23 September 1999. The Daily Collegian Online . Online (10 April 2009).
[1|#_ftnref1] John Linn, History of Centre and Clinton Counties, Pennsylvania (Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts, 1975) 177
[2|#_ftnref2] Michael Bezilla, PennState: an Illustrated History (University Park: Penn State UP, 1985), 30-31
[3|#_ftnref3] Penn State Historical Commemoratives, “General James A. Beaver monument,” http://www.psu.edu/ur/about/markers/others/jamesbeaver.html (21 April 2009)
[4|#ftnref4]“Governor James Addams Beaver,” _Pennsylvania Governors Past to Present, Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, http://www.phmc.state.pa.us/bah/dam/governors/beaver.asp?secid=31 (21 April 2009)
[5|#_ftnref5] Penn State Historical Markers, “Old Beaver Field,” http://www.psu.edu/ur/about/markers/oldbeaverfield.html (21 April 2009)
[6|#_ftnref6]Michael Bezilla, PennState: an Illustrated History (University Park: Penn State UP, 1985), 30-31
[7|#ftnref7] “Plans for great Athletic Park,” _State Collegian, 31 January 1907: 3, Historical Digital Collegian Archive, Online (24 March 2009)
[8|#ftnref8] “Beaver Field,” _State Collegian, 29 October 1908: 8, Historical Digital Collegian Archive, Online (24 March 2009)
[9|#_ftnref9] Michael Bezilla, PennState: an Illustrated History (University Park: Penn State UP, 1985), 30-31
[10|#ftnref10] “The New Athletic Field,” _State Collegian, 22 January 1908: 3, Historical Digital Collegian Archive, Online (24 March 2009)
[11|#ftnref11] “The New Beaver Field,” _State Collegian, 11 March 1909: 6, Historical Digital Collegian Archive, Online (30 March 2009)
[12|#ftnref12] “Beaver Field,” _State Collegian, 13 May 1909: 1, Historical Digital Collegian Archive, Online (30 March 2009)
[13|#ftnref13] “The Band Helps,” _State Collegian, 20 October 1910: 2, Historical Digital Collegian Archive, Online (24 March 2009)
[14|#_ftnref14] Michael Bezilla, PennState: an Illustrated History (University Park: Penn State UP, 1985), 30-31
[15|#_ftnref15] Michael Bezilla, PennState: an Illustrated History (University Park: Penn State UP, 1985), 30-31
[16|#ftnref16] Thomas E. Range and Sean Patrick Smith, The Penn State Blue Band: A Century of Pride and Precision (University Park: Penn State UP, 1999), 232[17|#_ftnref17] “The Alma Mater,” _Penn State Collegian, 14 November 1922: 2, Historical Digital Collegian Archive, Online (30 March 2009)
[18|#ftnref18] Johnny Black, “Beaver Field Tells History,” _Daily Collegian, 14 November 1959: 1, Historical Digital Collegian Archive, Online (10 April 2009)
[19|#ftnref19] Tom Morgan, “Between the Lions,” _Daily Collegian, 27 October 1948: 3, Historical Digital Collegian Archive, Online (10 April 2009)
[20|#ftnref20]“Nittany Football Stadium To Seat 30,000 Fans,” _Daily Collegian, 21 September 1949: 9, Historical Digital Collegian Archive, Online (10 April 2009)
[21|#ftnref21]“College Plans Raising Beaver Field Capacity,” _Daily Collegian, 10 December 1948: 1, Historical Digital Collegian Archive, Online (10 April 2009)
[22|#ftnref22]“College Plans Raising Beaver Field Capacity,” _Daily Collegian, 10 December 1948: 1, Historical Digital Collegian Archive, Online (10 April 2009)
[23|#ftnref23] Elliot Krane, “Between the Lions” _Daily Collegian, 27 September 1949: 5, Historical Digital Collegian Archive, Online (10 April 2009)
[24|#ftnref24] Elaine Miele, “Football Stadium Mushrooms in Architecture Student’s Plans,” _Daily Collegian, 7 February 1959: 5, Historical Digital Collegian Archive, Online (10 April 2009)
[25|#ftnref25] “New Stadium Officially Opens for 1960 Starter Against B.U.,” _Daily Collegian, 17 September 1960: 1, Historical Digital Collegian Archive, Online (10 April 2009)
[26|#ftnref26]“Curtain Road Regulations Announced,” _Daily Collegian, 21 November 1959: 1, Historical Digital Collegian Archive, Online (10 April 2009)
[27|#ftnref27] “New Stadium Skeleton Rises,” _Daily Collegian, 13 September 1959: 21, Historical Digital Collegian Archive, Online (10 April 2009)
[28|#ftnref28] “New Stadium Officially Opens for 1960 Starter Against B.U.,” _Daily Collegian, 17 September 1960: 1, Historical Digital Collegian Archive, Online (10 April 2009)
[29|#ftnref29]“Stadium Parking Lot Picnics Expected for Next Season,” _Daily Collegian, 6 April 1960: 8, Historical Digital Collegian Archive, Online (10 April 2009)
[30|#ftnref30]“Tailgating: PSU Tradition,” _Daily Collegian, 4 November 1974: 13, Historical Digital Collegian Archive, Online (10 April 2009)
[31|#ftnref31]“Stadium Problem,” _Daily Collegian, 1 December 1971: 2, Historical Digital Collegian Archive, Online (10 April 2009)
[32|#ftnref32]“Tailgating: PSU Tradition,” _Daily Collegian, 4 November 1974: 13, Historical Digital Collegian Archive, Online (10 April 2009)
[33|#ftnref33] Sharon Fink and Amy Endlich, “Sports complex, another stadium expansion approved by Trustees,” _Daily Collegian, 22 January 1979: 1, Historical Digital Collegian Archive, Online (10 April 2009)
[34|#ftnref34] Jeff Schuler, “As Lion football grows, so does Beaver Stadium,” _Daily Collegian, 22 September 1980: 7, Historical Digital Collegian Archive, Online (10 April 2009)
[35|#ftnref35]Jeanette Krebs, “Loyal lion fan has ashes sprinkled inside stadium,” _Daily Collegian, 19 June 1984: 10, Historical Digital Collegian Archive, Online (10 April 2009)
[36|#ftnref36] Erin Fee, “Ravaged field gets sod checkup,” _Daily Collegian, 29 September 1993, The Daily Collegian Online, Online (10 April 2009)
[37|#ftnref37] Erin Fee, “Ravaged field gets sod checkup,” _Daily Collegian, 29 September 1993, The Daily Collegian Online, Online (10 April 2009)
[38|#ftnref38] Dean Myers, “Got Marshmallows? Not at Beaver Stadium,” _Daily Collegian, 2 November 2005, The Daily Collegian Online, Online (10 April 2009)
[39|#ftnref39] Tracy Wilson, “Beaver Stadium designs set,” _Daily Collegian, 23 September 1999, The Daily Collegian Online, Online (10 April 2009)
[40|#ftnref40] Tysen Kendig, “Nittany Lion weathervane to prowl atop stadium,” _Penn State Intercom, 9 August 2001, http://www.psu.edu/ur/archives/intercom_2001/Aug9/vane.html