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23 05 01 Mechanical General Requirements 

.01 Motors and Drives 
  1. Motors
    1. All motors over 1/2 hp shall be ball bearing unless otherwise noted.
    2. All ball bearing motors shall be equipped with lubricating type bearings, and provided with one (1) grease fitting per bearing and one (1) removable plug per bearing in the bottom of the grease sump to provide for flushing and pressure relief when lubricating. Motors shall be permanently marked that bearings are lubricating type bearings. Where motor grease fittings are not accessible, extend 1/8" steel or copper tubing from fitting to an accessible location.
    3. Motors 1 hp and larger to be three phase, 60 hertz.
    4. Motors smaller than 1 hp to be single phase, 60 hertz, 120V and shall have built in thermal protection.
    5. All motors above 1 hp shall be the low loss - high efficiency type. Motors shall be tested in accordance with NEMA standard MG1 1.536 and name plate shall indicate the index letter.
    6. All 3-phase motors larger than 5 hp shall have power factor correction capacitors as recommended by the manufacturer.
    7. Motor inrush current must not create a voltage sag in excess of 3 percent without specific University approval.
    8. A voltage sag report shall be completed by the Professional on selected projects as determined by the University. Report shall include backup calculations and expected building voltage sag when motor or motors in question are started.
    9. The University has experienced widespread premature motor shaft bearing failures due to fluting from electrical arcing on motors equipped with Variable Frequency Drives. The Design Engineer must specify appropriate technologies and/or include provisions in the system design to prevent electrical fluting induced premature bearing failure from occurring.
      1. PSU Engineering Services Electrical Group requests motors are provided with a bearing protection kit utilizing a high conductivity silver graphite brush and constant force holder system. This assembly shall position the silver graphite brush so that it is in constant contact with the motor shaft during operation.
      2. For motors with a shaft diameter equal to or greater than 1-1/4”, use the Bearing Protection Kit, model no. BPK-4, by Helwig Carbon Products. For any other shaft sizes, select product based on manufacturer’s recommendations.
  2. Drives
    1. All belt driven equipment shall include properly selected adjustable sheaves and matched V belts, all rated for 150% of motor horsepower. Proper expanded metal guards should be provided for safety protection and to allow for proper ventilation for cool operation of belts. Solid sheaves and band belts shall be used to minimize vibration in multiple V-belt driven equipment.
    2. Motor grease fittings shall be extended so belt guards do not need to be removed.
    3. All adjustable sheaves shall be replaced with suitable fixed sheaves prior to final acceptance by the University.

.02 Valves 
  1. General
    1. Locate valves for easy access and provide separate support where necessary.
    2. Install valves in position to allow full handle and/or stem movement.
    3. Install valves in horizontal piping with stem at or above center of pipe.
    4. Coordinate with pipe insulation requirements.
      1. Provide extended-stem valves, arranged in proper manner to receive specified insulation thickness. Insulation cut away to receive standard stems is not acceptable.
      2. For ball valves on piping systems requiring up to 2" of insulation, specify valve manufacturer's optional thermally insulated, extended tee-handles (similar to Apollo "therma-Seal"). Features shall include a high strength, reinforced polymer body, fabricated to maintain vapor seal, internal insulation plug for enhanced thermal and vapor sealing, position indicators, formed holes for identification tag, tested and classified to UL 2043 for air plenum service, convenient valve packing maintenance - all without disturbing the insulation. Piping insulation shall be secured directly onto the integrated plastic sleeve without being disturbed during valve operation.
        1. Caution: Handle should not be used in applications where its temperature will exceed 275°F (confirm limits with specific manufacturer).
      3. Refer to 23 07 00 HVAC INSULATION for requirements for valve manufacturer's optional preformed 2-piece insulation kit covers (similar to products offered by TA Hydraulics) for balance valves. 
    5. Operators:
      1. Provide handwheels, fastened to valve stem, for valves other than quarter-turn.
      2. Provide lever handle for quarter-turn valves, 4" and smaller, other than plug valves.
      3. Provide one wrench for every 10 plug valves.
      4. Provide gear operators for quarter-turn valves 6" and larger (weatherproof on exterior valves).
      5. Provide chainwheel operators for all valves mounted more than 10 feet above floor in equipment rooms (or otherwise beyond convenient and safe reach of person safely using a 6’ stepladder). Extend chains to to be reachable and convenient yet avoid being a nuisance, approximately 76-80 inches above finished floor.
        1. Exceptions:
          1. If valves are intended for routine, frequent use, provide chainwheel operators if mounted more than 7 feet above floor in equipment rooms, with chains extended to approximately 60-72” above finished floor. Review such applications with OPP.
    6. All valves of the same type on any one project shall be the product of one manufacturer.
    7. Valves shall have right hand threads.
    8. Where possible, valves shall be installed with valve bonnet in an upright position to prevent deterioration or corrosion of bonnet and packing.
    9. Valve body materials shall be compatible with piping system materials.
      1. Do not use cast iron body shut-off valves on steam systems.
  2. Shutoff Valves
    1. General: Install positive shut-off valves throughout the distribution piping system to facilitate shutdown and draining of smallest segment as practical for repairs while keeping the rest of the system operational.
    2. Locations: Refer to location requirements in Section 23 21 00 HYDRONIC PIPING AND PUMPS, .01 General Requirements and Design Intent. 
    3. Types and typical service schedule:
      1. Ball valves (full port): for hydronic and steam systems, up to 2”, (or up to 4” as an alternative to high performance butterfly valves for critical shut-off applications).
      2. Butterfly valves: for hydronic systems, greater than 2”. 
        1. General:
          1. Specify only lug or flange style so valves can be a future point of disconnection on one side yet stay in service and not require entire draining of system. Wafer style is prohibited.
          2. Butterfly valves shall be capable of closing tight after long periods of inactivity. Butterfly valves shall be designed with internal, non-wetted connections to eliminate external disc-to-stem connections such as screws or taper pins. OPP often finds butterfly valves that fail to hold or that those connections have corroded and disc rotates on stem internally after years of service, which is unacceptable.
        2. Resilient Seat Butterfly Valves: typically use where standard bubble-tight shut-off service is intended but critical, zero leakage isolation is not absolutely essential.
          1. Must be a high quality valve that complies with the general requirements above.
          2. Resilient seats must be properly selected for best longevity for each application. Seats for valves in closed loop hydronic applications shall be rated for a minimum of 250 degrees and completely compatible with service fluid. Seats for valves in open systems shall be selected to resist abrasive wear.
        3. High Performance Butterfly valves: use where long term bi-directional zero leakage isolation is absolutely essential (building connections to central utility systems, pipe mains exiting central/primary mechanical rooms, bases of main system risers, main branch takeoffs from risers).
      3. Gate: for steam systems, greater than 2”.
  3. Balancing Valves
    1. See Section 23 21 16 - Hydronic Specialties. 
  4. Check Valves
    1. Where check valves are required, check valves shall be installed on the equipment side of all shutoff valves to facilitate servicing the check valve.
  5. Drain Valves
    1. 1. General: Hydronic piping systems shall be designed and installed to permit all sections of the system to be properly and fully drained. Provide drain valves at all low points of systems, at bases of riser, and at lowest points at equipment runouts, typically on downstream side of shut-off valves.
    2. Drain valves shall be a minimum of 3/4" with hose end connection.
  6. Pump Valves
    1. See Section 23 21 23 - HVAC Pumps

.03 Pipe Hangers and Supports
  1. Provide an adequate pipe suspension system in accordance with the current version of the International Mechanical Code, recognized engineering practices, using standard, commercially accepted pipe hangers and accessories. The use of pipe hooks, chains, or perforated iron for pipe supports will not be accepted.
  2. Contractor shall submit Data sheets for approval on all pipe hanger items prior to installation.
  3. All piping shall be arranged to maintain the required pitch and provided for proper expansion and contraction.
  4. No holes are to be drilled or burned in structural building steel for hanger rod supports.
  5. Vertical runs of pipe shall be supported with riser clamps made specifically for pipe or for tubing.
  6. Where concentrated loads of valves and fittings occur, closer spacing may be necessary. Hangers must be installed not more than 12 inches from each change in direction of pipes.
  7. All hangers for piping shall be provided with a means of vertical adjustment. If adjustment is not incorporated in the hangers, use turnbuckles.
  8. Provide piping suspension systems with vibration isolation capability as required. For vibration isolation requirements of piping suspension systems, refer to Sound and Vibration Control, 23 05 01.05.
  9. Copper clamps and hangers shall be used on copper piping.

.04 Sound and Vibration Control 
  1. Vibration Control Requirements
    1. Mechanical and electrical equipment and associated piping and duct work shall be mounted on vibration isolators as specified and shown in equipment schedules and as required to minimize transmission of noise and vibration to the building structure or spaces within.
    2. All rotating equipment shall be balanced both statically and dynamically. The equipment supporting structure shall not have any natural frequency within plus or minus 20% of the operating speed. The equipment, while operating, shall not exceed a self-excited RMS radial velocity of greater than 0.10 inches/second. Vibration pick-ups shall be placed on the bearing caps in the horizontal, vertical, and axial directions, or on the equipment supporting structure if the bearing caps are concealed.
      1. Accelerometers shall be permanently placed on all pieces of equipment in hard to reach or unsafe areas. The University has Standardized on 100 milli-volts/(g) with an accuracy of plus and minus 5 to 10 percent and BNC connections. The University is currently using Wilcox or SKF accelerometers and an SKF Microlog CMVA60 detection monitor.
      2. Critical areas should be discussed with the University. Tighter tolerances may be desired in certain circumstances.
    3. The specifications shall require the Contractor to hire a third party vibration analyst to conduct baseline vibration signature tests of specified pieces or classes of equipment. The Professional shall review the proposed equipment for the project with the University and agree upon which type of equipment to include in the specifications for vibration analysis. This process should be accomplished as early during the design phase as possible. The specifications shall also state that the University's Commissioning Contractor shall witness and/or verify the accuracy of the Vibration Contractor's test results. If an abnormal amount of equipment fails the Commissioning Contractor's verification (% to be determined on a project basis), the vibration tests by the Contractor must be repeated for all equipment.
    4. Where equipment vibration exceeds manufacturer’s recommendations or levels specified, the Contractor shall make corrections to reduce vibration frequencies and amplitude to within specified limits. If this cannot be accomplished, the equipment shall be replaced with equipment that will meet all requirements of the specifications.
    5. The Contractor shall be required to submit a report for approval by the University and the Professional. The report shall include vibration analysis and alignment data of all specified rotating equipment. The report shall be submitted in paper and electronic format. The electronic data shall be submitted in a form that may be imported to SKF's Prism 4 Solutions software program.
  2. Equipment Isolation
    1. Isolation shall be stable during starting and stopping of equipment. Lateral thrust restraint isolators shall be provided where necessary to prevent excessive lateral movement under equipment start-up and stop conditions. Lateral thrust isolators shall not interfere with vertical isolation.
    2. Isolation shall be selected for the operating speed of the equipment. Where the equipment is controlled by a variable frequency drive, the isolator shall be sized for the lowest expected operating speed.
    3. Isolators located outdoors shall be hot-dipped galvanized.
    4. Isolators shall be selected and located to produce uniform loading and deflection even when the equipment weight is not evenly distributed.
    5. Base type, isolator type, and required minimum (not nominal) deflection shall be part of all equipment schedules shown on drawings and/or in specifications.
    6. Unless otherwise specified, said base types, isolator types, and deflections shall be taken from the “Selection Guide for Vibration Isolation” table in the Sound and Vibration Control chapter of the ASHRAE Applications Handbook, current edition.
      1. Fan and motor assemblies in air handling units may be internally spring isolated. In which case, external isolation shall not be provided.
      2. Packages containing other rotating equipment, such as compressors and pumps, shall be externally isolated.
  3. Piping and Ductwork
    1. Vibration isolation shall be provided for piping and ductwork as follows:
      1. All high pressure ducts (over 6” wg) for 50’ from vibration isolated air handling equipment.
      2. All piping located in mechanical rooms, or for a distance of 50’, whichever is greater. Pipe hanger isolators shall have the same deflection as that supplied for equipment to which the piping is attached.
      3. The vibration isolator units selected shall not deter the thermal movement of the piping or the expansion compensator from performing its required task.
  4. Flexible Connections
    1. Flexible duct connections shall be provided adjacent to air handling equipment.
    2. Flexible piping connections shall be provided at piping connections to all rotating mechanical equipment mounted on vibration isolators.
    3. Flexible conduit, equal to 150% of the distance between motor connection and adjacent attachment point, shall be provided for electrical connections to all vibration isolated equipment.
  5. Interior Sound Pressure Level Requirements
    1. The maximum interior sound pressure levels, due to installed HVAC equipment, shall not exceed those shown in the table of design guidelines for HVAC-related background sound in rooms in the chapter of Sound and Vibration Control, ASHRAE Application Handbook, current edition, unless otherwise specified.
      1. While these guidelines are labeled as RC values, they shall be interpreted as NCB guidelines (per ANSI Standard S12.2).
      2. The RC Mark II method shall be used for investigating room noise problems in the field, per the above noted ASHRAE Handbook chapter.
  6. Exterior Sound Pressure Level Requirements
    1. Equipment installed outside the building, at grade, in areaways, attached to walls, and on the roof, such as cooling tower fans, air conditioning units, refrigerant condensers, fans, exhaust silencers, air intakes, etc. shall comply with all local, city, state, and federal requirements.

.05 Mechanical Identification 
  1. By Professional
    1. All Mechanical drawing symbols used shall be in accordance with standards of accepted practice.

      DocumentVersion DateDescription
      Equipment Acronym ListMay 2011List of equipment abbreviations and identification numbering conventions.
    2. All equipment shown on Contract Documents shall conform to University's abbreviations and numbering connections defined in the Equipment Acronym List found in Division 01: 01 01 00 PROJECT DOCUMENTATION FORMAT.
    3. By Contractor
    4. Equipment
      1. All equipment, including associated electrical devices, shall be tagged in accordance with the University's CCS numbering guidelines. Tags shall be engraved, black, laminated, micarta tags with white reading symbols secured to equipment (not motor), usually inside access door for equipment in finished areas and exposed in all other areas. Tags should be mechanically fastened to equipment. DO NOT USE GLUE OR WIRE.
    5. Piping and Ductwork
      1. Three-fourth-inch wide, adhesive-backed vinyl cloth labels shall be used on all piping 2" and smaller. Label lettering shall identify both the medium being conveyed and the direction of flow.
      2. Two-inch-wide, adhesive-backed vinyl cloth labels shall be used on piping greater than 2" and on all ductwork. Label lettering shall identify both the medium being conveyed and the direction of flow.
      3. Labels shall be spaced maximum 15' centers. Position labels for easy viewing.
      4. Identification of piping and ductwork may also be stenciled in a neat manner following the size and spacing guidelines as previously listed.
    6. Valves
      1. Valve tags - 1" x 2" laminated, black micarta attached by 10 gauge brass "S" hook. Valve numbers to be engraved as large as possible and to read white.
      2. Valve charts shall be typewritten on white bond paper and mounted in a glass-front frame. Charts shall indicate service, number and location.
      3. On renovation projects, contractor shall be directed to revise existing valve charts as required.
  2. University Mechanical Color Code
    1. Follow current industry ANSI/ASME A13.1 Standard for color coding scheme and piping system identification. Comply with standard for lettering size, color scheme based on classification of contents, length of color field, locations and intervals, and visibility.
      1. General Requirements for Manufactured Pipe Labels: Preprinted, color-coded, with lettering indicating service, and showing flow direction.
      2. Pipe Label Contents: Include identification of piping service using same designations or abbreviations as used on Drawings, pipe size, and an arrow indicating flow direction.
      3. Markers shall be located so that they are readily visible to plant personnel from the point of normal approach.
      4. Locate pipe labels where piping is exposed or above accessible ceilings in finished spaces; machine rooms; accessible maintenance spaces such as shafts, tunnels, and plenums; and exterior exposed locations as follows:
        1. Near major equipment items and other points of origination and termination.
        2. Adjacent to all valves and control devices.
        3. Near each branch connection, excluding short takeoffs for fixtures and terminal units. Where flow pattern is not obvious, mark each pipe at branch.
        4. Near penetrations through walls, floors, ceilings, and inaccessible enclosures.
        5. Adjacent to changes in directions.
        6. At access doors, manholes, and similar access points that permit view of concealed piping.
        7. Spaced at maximum intervals of 50 feet along each straight run. Reduce intervals to 25 feet in areas of congested piping and equipment or otherwise difficult to access areas such as attics, crawl spaces, tunnels, and above suspended ceilings.
    2. Other Requirements
      1. Painting Coordination: The painting of exposed heating and ventilating work, fire protection work, and plumbing work, in finished rooms shall be specified to be included by the General Contractor under General Construction Painting Section in Division 9. The installation of color coded identification, labels where the piping enters and leaves the finished areas after painting is completed shall be the responsibility of the respective mechanical systems Contractors.

.06 Access Panels
  1. Access panels are required in each situation where items requiring maintenance are located above a concealed ceiling.
  2. Use screwdriver actuated locks.
  3. Access panel sizes shall be suitable for application.
  4. Access panel locations shall be indicated on contract drawings.
  5. Access panels are not required in lay-in ceilings, but identify appropriate tile with color button, cleated through, located on the adjacent ceiling grid. Use color code of principal service.

23 05 19 Measuring Instruments for HVAC 

.01 General
  1. Provide all measuring instruments as required to achieve proper balancing, calibration of electronic sensors, and routine inspection, maintenance and troubleshooting of mechanical systems.
    1. Provide permanent gauges and thermometers on all central equipment and temperature / pressure control zones in all mechanical and utility rooms.
    2. Provide pressure and temperature test plugs adjacent to all electronic pressure or temperature BAS sensors in hydronic systems (for testing/calibration purposes), on all terminal heating and cooling equipment, and at temperature/pressure control zones in hydronic systems in non-occupied spaces, such as above ceilings or below raised floors.
    3. Provide permanent venturi flowmeters on pumps; and on primary / dedicated hydronic flow control zones where flow/gpm point is scheduled on control sequences. (Review specific applications with OPP Engineering Staff).
    4. Refer to Division 33 00 00 - Utilities for Utility meters (campus chilled water, steam, gas).
  2. Provide instruments with scale ranges selected according to service.
  3. Quality Assurance: Comply with applicable portions of ANSI, ASME and Instrument Society of America (ISA) standards pertaining to construction and installation of meters and gauges.
  4. Submittals:
    1. Product Data: Submit manufacturer's technical product data for each type of measuring instrument. Submit schedule showing manufacturer's model number, scale range, location, and accessories for each type and application.
    2. Submit maintenance data and spare parts lists for each type of measuring instrument. Include this data and product data in Maintenance Manual.
  5. RELATED DOCUMENTS
    1. 23 21 13 Hydronic Piping 
    2. 23 21 23 HVAC Pumps 
    3. 25 00 00 INTEGRATED AUTOMATION 
    4. 33 60 00 HYDRONIC AND STEAM ENERGY UTILITIES
    5. 33 63 00 STEAM ENERGY DISTRIBUTION

.02 Products
  1. PRESSURE GAUGES
    1. General: Provide pressure gauges of materials, capacities, and ranges indicated, designed and constructed for use in service indicated.
    2. Type: General HVAC grade, 1% accuracy, ANSI B40.1 grade A, glycerine filled phosphor bronze bourdon type, rotary brass movement with front recalibration adjustment bottom connection.
    3. Case: Aluminum or nylon, glass (or acrylic) lens, 4½" diameter typical
    4. Connector: Brass with ¼" male NPT. Provide protective syphon when used for steam service.
    5. Scale: White coated aluminum, with permanently etched black markings.
    6. Set Hands: Where pressure gauges are indicated for use across pump suction diffusers or straining / filter devices, provide adjustable set hands to indicate recommended pressure ranges of system.
    7. Range: Select for normal operating pressure to be approximately mid range of scale with full scale range shall be selected to be approximately 1.5 to 2.5 times the normal maximum operating pressure. The following typical ranges are suggested. The Professional shall select/specify final per specific system requirements:
      1. Vacuum: 30" Hg - 30 psig (Compound)
      2. Water: 
        0 - 15 psig (between 2 to 10 psig max operating pressure)
        0 - 30 psig (between 10 to 20 psig max operating pressure)
        0 - 60 psig (between 20 to 40 psig max operating pressure)
        0 - 100 psig (between 40 to 60 psig max operating pressure)
        0 - 160 psig (between 60 to 100 psig max operating pressure)
        0 - 200 psig (between 100 to 130 psig max operating pressure)
        0 - 300 psig (between 130 to 200 psig max operating pressure)
      3. Steam: 
        0 - 200 psig (High Pressure – up to 125 psig max operating)
        0 - 100 psig (Medium Pressure – up to 50 psig max operating)
        0 - 30 psig (Low Pressure – up to 15 psig max operating)
    8. GAUGE ATTACHMENTS
      1. Snubbers: ASME B40.100, brass; with ¼” NPT, ASME B1.20.1 pipe threads and porous-stainless steel filter-type surge-dampening device. Include extension for use on insulated piping.
      2. Siphons: Loop-shaped section of brass (for normal operating pressure/temperature up to 200 psi, 325  F) or stainless-steel (for normal operating pressure/temperature greater than for brass) pipe with ¼” NPT pipe threads.
      3. Valves: Brass body, stainless ball, selected for working pressure suitable for application, with ¼” NPT, ASME B1.20.1 pipe threads.
    9. Manufacturers: Subject to compliance with requirements, available manufacturers offering products that may be incorporated into the Work include, but are not limited to, the following:
      1. Ashcroft Inc.
      2. Ernst Flow Industries
      3. Marsh Instruments
      4. Miljoco Corporation
      5. Trerice, H.O. Co.
      6. Weiss Instruments Inc.
      7. Weksler
  2. LIQUID-IN-GLASS THERMOMETERS
    1. General: Provide stem type glass thermometers, per Standard ASME B40.200, of materials, capacities, and ranges indicated, designed and constructed for use in service indicated.
    2. Case: Die cast aluminum finished in baked epoxy enamel, glass front, spring secured, 9" long, acrylic or glass window face.
    3. Adjustable Joint: Die cast aluminum, finished to match case, 180 adjustment in vertical plane, 360 adjustment in horizontal plane, with locking device.
    4. Tube and Capillary: Glass with magnifying lens, blue or red organic liquid (non-mercury), 1% scale range accuracy, shock mounted.
    5. Scale: Satin faced, non-reflective aluminum, permanently etched markings.
    6. Stem: Copper-plated steel, aluminum, or brass, for separable socket, length to suit installation.
      1. Design for Thermowell Installation: Bare stem.
      2. Design for Air-Duct Installation: With ventilated shroud.
    7. Accuracy: Plus or minus 1 percent of scale range or one scale division, to a maximum of 1.5 percent of scale range.
    8. Range: Full scale range shall be selected to be approximately 1.33 to 2.0 times the normal maximum operating temperature. The following typical ranges are suggested. The Professional shall select/specify final per specific system requirements:
      1. Chilled Water (40-75  F max): 0 - 100 F with 1 F scale divisions.
      2. Condenser-Water Piping: 0 to 160 F with 2 F scale divisions.
      3. Hot Water (120-180  F max): 30 - 240 F with 2 F scale divisions.
      4. Steam and Steam-Condensate Piping: 50 to 400 F with 5 F scale divisions.
      5. Conditioned Air Ducts: 0 to 160 F with 2 F scale divisions.
    9. Thermowells:
      1. Standard: ASME B40.200.
      2. Description: Pressure-tight, socket-type fitting made for insertion into piping tee fitting.
      3. Material for Use with Copper Tubing: Brass
      4. Material for Use with Steel Piping: Brass or Stainless Steel.
      5. Bore: Diameter required to match thermometer bulb or stem.
      6. Insertion Length: Length required to match thermometer bulb or stem.
      7. Lagging Extension: Include on thermowells for insulated piping and tubing.
      8. Bushings: For converting size of thermowell's internal screw thread to size of thermometer connection.
      9. Heat-transfer compound: Shall be used to improve thermal transfer and to eliminate condensation forming within the thermowell. Compound shall consist of synthetic, efficient thermally conductive ceramic or metal oxides in a homogeneous, non-hardening paste with negligible bleed and evaporation loss. Compound shall not cause catalytic corrosion between probe material and thermowell).
    10. DUCT-THERMOMETER MOUNTING BRACKETS Description: Flanged bracket with screw holes, for attachment to air duct and made to hold thermometer stem.
    11. Manufacturers: Subject to compliance with requirements, available manufacturers offering products that may be incorporated into the Work include, but are not limited to, the following:
      1. Ashcroft Inc.
      2. Ernst Flow Industries
      3. Marsh Instruments
      4. Miljoco Corporation
      5. Trerice, H.O. Co.
      6. Weiss Instruments Inc.
      7. Weksler
  3. PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE TEST PLUGS
    1. Construct of brass, equip with NPT fitting, with self-sealing, dual valve core type Nordel gasketed orifice suitable for inserting 1/8" O.D. probe assembly from dial type insertion thermometer or pressure gauge. Test plugs shall be pressure rated for 500 psi and 275F. Equip orifice with gasketed screw cap and chain. Provide extension of length equal to insulation thickness for insulated piping.
    2. Acceptable Manufacturers: Subject to compliance with requirements, manufacturers offering pressure/temperature test plugs which may be incorporated in the work include; but are not limited to, the following:
      1. Peterson Equipment Co.
      2. Sisco
      3. Watts Regulator
  4. Venturi Flowmeters:
    1. Description: flowmeter assembly shall be commercial HVAC grade, venturi type, calibrated flow-measuring element including, hoses or tubing, fittings, valves, indicator, and conversion chart. All Venturi meters shall be manufactured under an ISO 9001:2000 certified quality program.
    2. Flow Range: Sensor and indicator shall cover operating range of equipment or system served.
    3. Sensor: low pressure loss venturi-type, calibrated, flow-measuring element; for installation in piping.
      1. Design: Differential-pressure-type measurement for suitable for HVAC hydronic fluids, gases and steam.
        1. The Venturi inlet section shall be cylindrical with a pressure sensing tap and of the same diameter as the incoming pipe section and followed by a precise smooth contoured radius section causing a uniform change in fluid velocity, and to maintain a low permanent low pressure loss.
        2. Accuracy: shall be within ±2.0 uncalibrated (±0.5% calibrated) with a repeatability of ±0.1% and turndown of 10:1
      2. Construction: Bronze, brass, or factory-primed steel, or as otherwise required to meet the intended service conditions if atypical, with extensions on sensing taps allowing for pipe insulation thickness and brass ball valve connections suitable for connection of tubing to flow indicating assembly.
      3. Provide permanent, stainless steel tag with pipe size, manufacturer’s nameplate and flow conversion data on chain as required so that tag remains visible and not covered by insulation.
      4. Minimum Pressure Rating: 250 psig or not less than 1.5 times maximum system working pressure, whichever is greater.
      5. Minimum Temperature Rating: 250 deg F.
      6. End Connections for 2” and Smaller: Threaded.
      7. End Connections for 2-1/2” and Larger: Flanged or grooved.
      8. Flow Range: Flow-measuring element and flowmeter shall cover operating range of equipment or system served.
    4. Flow indicating assembly: Shall consist of:
      1. Three valve manifold
      2. local direct reading gauge suitable for wall or bracket mounting, calibrated for connected flowmeter element, 4” min. diameter dial with threaded fittings
        1. Scale: Gallons per minute (verify and coordinate any special requirements to adjust for use with glycol solutions).
        2. Accuracy: Plus or minus 1 percent between 20 and 80 percent of scale range.
      3. DP/Flow Transmitter (Where applicable - coordinate requirements with 25 00 00 INTEGRATED AUTOMATION 
        1. When applicable, a DP transmitter with calibrated local electronic display of gpm may be used in lieu of direct read dial gauge.
      4. Additional P/T ports at each tap for local independent verification without disassembling tubing.
      5. Copper tubing for connecting components together and to flowmeter taps.
    5. Operation and Maintenance Data:
      1. Conversion Chart: Flow rate data compatible with sensor. Include all data for each meter clearly recorded in Manual.
      2. Operating Instructions: Include complete instructions with each flowmeter.
    6. Manufacturers: Subject to compliance with requirements, available manufacturers offering products that may be incorporated into the Work include, but are not limited to, the following:
      1. ABB; Instrumentation and Analytical.
      2. Gerand Engineering Co.
      3. Hyspan Precision Products, Inc.
      4. Preso Meters; a division of Racine Federated Inc.
      5. S. A. Armstrong Limited; Armstrong Pumps Inc.
      6. Victaulic Company.

.03 Execution
  1. General:
    1. Install gauges and thermometers in locations where they are easily read from normal operating level.
    2. Coil and conceal excess capillary on remote element instruments.
  2. Pressure Gauges: Install pressure gauges with snubber in piping tee with pressure gauge valve(s), located on pipe at most readable position. Install siphon for steam pressure gauges. Extend nipples and siphons to allow clearance from insulation. Install pressure gauges in the following locations:
    1. Inlet and Discharge of each pressure-reducing valve. One gauge on common inlet may be used for pressure reducing stations with multiple reducing valves.
    2. Single gauge with isolation valves across inlet and outlet of each of the following:
      1. Chiller chilled-water and condenser-water connection.
      2. Hydronic heat exchangers.
      3. Hydronic pumps.
      4. Major strainers and filter housings (include adjustable set hands to indicate upper limit when service is required).
      5. Exception: Individual gauges are permitted if length of tubing would be excessive or impractical for the preferred single gauge method.
    3. Connection to expansion tank
    4. Single gauge with isolation valve manifold across supply and return at each piping system remote differential pressure sensor/transmitter (used to control VFD).
  3. Thermometers: Install thermometers in the following locations:
    1. Inlet and outlet of each hydronic boiler.
    2. Inlets and outlets of each chiller (chilled water and condenser water supply and return).
    3. Two inlets and two outlets of each hydronic heat exchanger.
    4. Inlet and outlet of each hydronic zone (each secondary or tertiary loop with independent temperature control)
    5. Inlet and outlet of each hydronic coil in air-handling units.
    6. Inlet and outlet of each thermal-storage tank.
    7. Each inlet and outlet of air to air heat recovery device.
    8. Outside-, return-, supply-, and mixed-air ducts.
      1. Install thermometers in air duct systems on flanges.
      2. Locate duct mounted thermometers minimum 10 feet downstream of mixing dampers, coils, or other devices.
  4. Thermometer Wells: Install thermometers in piping systems in wells in short couplings. Enlarge pipes smaller than 2-1/2 inch for installation of thermometer wells. Ensure wells allow clearance from insulation. Fill voids between thermowell and thermometer and BAS sensor stems with heat conducting compound before installing in wells.
  5. Install pressure/temperature test plugs in piping tee, located on pipe at most accessible and readable position. Secure cap. Install where required to allow for balancing and troubleshooting without requiring permanent pressure gages and thermometers, including but not necessarily limited to the following locations:
    1. Adjacent to all pressure or temperature BAS sensors in hydronic systems (for testing/calibration purposes).
    2. At inlet and outlet of each hydronic terminal heat transfer device, such as:
      1. air handling coils
      2. terminal heating and/or cooling units
      3. temperature control zones
      4. At each location where major return streams mix (for troubleshooting)
        1. In common pipe, approximately 10 pipe diameters downstream of mixing point.
        2. In each upstream pipe section
    3. At inlet and outlet of each variable pressure change device, such as:
      1. Strainers at minor/zone pumps and central air handling equipment coils. Not required at strainers of small terminal heating/cooling units.
      2. Manual and automatic calibrated balancing valves (specify as manufacturer’s options factory fabricated on valves).
  6. Adjust gages and thermometers to final angle, clean windows and lenses, and calibrate.
    1. Adjusting: Adjust faces of meters and gauges to proper angle for best visibility.
      1. For gauges on straining/filtering devices, adjust set hands on pressure gauges to accurately indicate when service is required (approximately 50% above pressure differential when clean (or as otherwise recommended by strainer/filter manufacturer).
      2. After installation, zero and/or calibrate meters and gauges according to manufacturer's written instructions.
    2. Cleaning: Clean windows of meters and gauges and factory-finished surfaces. Replace cracked or broken windows, repair any scratched or marred surfaces with manufacturer's touch-up paint.
  7. Venturi Flow Meters:
    1. Assemble and install connections, tubing, and accessories between flow-measuring elements and flowmeters according to manufacturer's written instructions.
    2. Install flowmeter elements in accessible positions in piping systems.
    3. Install differential-pressure-type flowmeter elements, with at least minimum straight lengths of pipe, upstream and downstream from element according to manufacturer's written instructions.
    4. Install permanent indicators on walls or brackets in accessible and readable positions.
    5. Install connection fittings in accessible locations for attachment to portable indicators.

23 05 93 Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing for HVAC 

.01 General Owner Requirements and Design Intent
  1. The Design Professional shall be responsible that the system design, characteristics, layout, and components will ensure that proper testing, adjusting, and balancing can be achieved. This includes showing and specifying sufficient dampers, valves, flow measuring devices and locations, all properly located in required straight lengths of pipes or ducts for accurate measurement.
  2. General balancing tolerances are indicated in the Guide Specification. The Design Professional shall review and edit them as appropriate for noncritical or critical applications according to the project specific requirements. 
  3. Existing System Coordination: When connecting to an existing system, it is the Design Professional’s responsibility to examine existing documents, field verify existing conditions, perform thorough calculations, and confirm that the proposed systems will be adequately served by the existing systems attached to and adjacent to systems affected. Measurements, verifications and “pre-testing” of the existing systems may be required including evaluation of available trend data and obtaining the services of a testing, adjusting, and balancing (TAB) professional early in the design phase.
  4. Reports
    1. Reports in electronic, fully searchable, portable document format, shall be submitted on applicable AABC or NEBB Reporting Forms for review and approval by the Professional and University.
.02 Guide Specifications:
  1. Design Professional shall carefully review and edit the guideline specifications below, adapting them as needed to achieve application-specific, fully developed specifications for each project.
  2. These shall be edited using the process described in the instructions contained at the beginning of the document.  Proposed modifications shall be reviewed with OPP staff.
  3. Finalized version shall be included in the project contract documents.  Use of other specifications is not acceptable.

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23-05-93 Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing for HVAC Guide Specification

March 9, 2018OPP minimum specification requirements for Testing, Adjusting and Balancing for HVAC

 

 

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